Role of Automation in Technology
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Role of Automation in Technology



Automation playing an important role in great advances in technology is a well known fact. Automation, properly coordina­ted with other phases of technology, can substantially contri­bute to high productive efficiency. Mechanization of production operations and their automation is one of the most important problems.

If there were no computers, there would be no advanced au­tomation, computer science is an exciting field of study and research. Computer science being a broad discipline, it coveres logic design, the theory of computation, numerical analysis, programming and computer application.

There are different kinds of computers. Some do only one job. These are special-purpose computers. But there are some computers that can do many different jobs. They are called gene­ral-purpose computers. These are the "big brains" that solve the most difficult problems of science. They answer questions about rockets and planes bridges and ships long before these things are even built.

Today there are computers small enough to be carried In one's pocket or about the size of a typewriter. These new compu­ters are called personal computers. Computers are the most effi­cient servants man has ever had and there is no limit for their application in improving our lives and saving time for leisure.

Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning. They can solve the most complicated mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in or­der. As computers work accurately and at high speeds, they save research workers years of bard work. This whole process, by which machines сan be used to work for us, is called automation. Automation will have important social consequences.

Упр. 5. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по содержанию текста.

1. What are different kinds of computers?

2. Why do computers save research workers years of hard work?

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 4

Вариант II

Упр. 1. Спишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения с зависимыми и независимыми причастными оборотами.

1. Having discussed the chemical reaction we proceeded to the experiment.

2. The chemical reaction having been discussed, we proceeded to the experiment.

3. The experiment being made in our laboratory snows the action of catalysts.

4. Ultrasonics have many advantages over other methods, one of them being great penetrating power of ultrasonic waves.

5. The field of application of electronics having considerably grown, we can perform now many industrial processes with unheard-of accuracy.

Упр. 2. Спишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения обращая внимание на перевод герундиальных оборотов в различных функциях.

1. Its having many advantages over other methods makes ultrasonics indispensable for modem industry.

2. Because of its being applied in different branches of modern industry electronics is growing in importance from day to day.

3. The experiments carried out with ultrasonics resulted in its being widely used in modern industry.

Упр. 3. Спишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения, обращая внимание на перевод форм cocлагательного наклонения.

1. They suggested that he should begin the tests immediately.

2. It is important that these new devices be used in our experiment.

3. Without radioelectronics we shouldn't have cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics.

4. Had they all the necessary materials, they would complete this device in time.

5. Provided you had known about semiconductors more, you would have understood the arrangement of this device.

Уnp. 4. Прочтите и переведите текст устно на русский язык. Выпишите в словарь незнакомые слова с транскрипцией и переводом. К собеседованию подготовьте чтение и перевод всего текста.

Спишите и письменно переведите 2-й, 3-й, 4-й абзацы текста.

Text

The Most Important Semiconductor Device - Transistor

1. In the summer of 1945 a group of very able American sci­entists started work with the aim of producing devices useful in telecommunications.

In 1948 a revolutionary concept was introduced to electronic world: the invention of the transistor was announced.

2. We know a transistor to be hardly more than a bit of crystal. Electron flow is controlled by tiny impurities in different parts of the germanium or silicon crystal, there being no mechanical parts in the conventional sense, as in the vacuum tube.

3. Transistors are sure to be of great interest not only for physics but for modern and future technology. Transistors being very sensitive to the action of light, pressure, radioactivity, scientists and engineers successfully use these properties and design very small electronic devices which consume very little power.

4. Transistors are known to be widely used for direct transformation of heat energy into electric energy or radiant energy into electricity. Space thermoelectric generators are developed on the basis of transistors, such generators being used to produce auxiliary electric power for space vehicles. Such generators producing energy up to several kilowatts makes them suitable for operation in the range from Mars to Venus.

5. We know semiconductor electronics to have been widely used in telephone industry and then in transistor radios. In 1955 transistors began to be used in computers. That year IBM company marketed a computer in which 1250 valves had been rep­laced by 2220 transistors reducing the power consumption of the computer by 95 per cent. The invention almost at the same time of the stored-program digital computer provided a large potential market for the transistor. The reason is that digital systems require very large numbers of transistor circuits. It is quite understandable that it would be impossible to miniaturize electronic computers without transistors.

Упр. 5. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

1. What revolutionary concept was introduced to electronic world in 1948?

2. Why has the invention of the stored-program digital computer provided a large potential market for the transistor?

 

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 4

Вариант III

Упр. 1. Спишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения с зависимыми и независимыми причастными оборотами.

1. When falling the mоre massive bodies hаve more inertia to overсоme.

2. The speed of light being extremely great, we cannot measure it by ordinary methods.

3. The instruments needed for the experiment were carefully checked.

4. A microprocessor plays a role of a complete central processing unit of a computer, an integrated circuit forming the basis of it.

5. The data having been processed carefully, the results are accurate.

Упр. 2. Впишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложе­ния, обращая внимание на перевод герундиальных оборотов в раз­личных функциях.

1. Your having studied the principles of mechanics will help you in your future work.

2. They objected to this article being published before all the experiments were completed.

3. This device hаs the advantage of being suitable for many purposes.

Упр. 3. Спишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложе­ния, обращая внимание на перевод форм сослагательного наклонения.

1. Unless computer technique had been developed, space research would have never made such great progress.

2. What would you do in such circumstances? In such circumstances I would do the same. 3. The committee suggested that a new programme would be worked out.

4. Had he taken into account the properties of the substance under investigation, he would have been careful when working with it.

5. It is of great importance for our work that all the equipment be in good order.

Упр. 4. Прочтите и переведите текст устно на русский язык. Выпишите в словарь незнакомые слова с транскрипцией и переводом. К собеседованию подготовьте чтение и перевод всего текста. Спишите и письменно переведите 1-й и 2-й абзацы текста.

Text

Production Control

1. Production control is nowadays a very complex management task. It is largely a matter of making the most effective use of available time and equipment. The aim of production control could be summarized as the provision of finished products of acceptable quality, at the required place, at the correct time and at minimum cost.

2. This aim having not been changed since industrial enterprises began to develop, the techniques of production control have been improved radically. The factor which greatly facilitated the development in this field was the application of the computer. At first computers were used for performing separate tasks: computer control, machine loading, work scheduling, ordering of raw materials, etc. If а computer could be used overall, general benefits would result.

3. Anу production control system may be presented in a simplified form. It generally includes input and output information. In put to the system comprises information about raw materials. purchasing requirements, product types, and quantities, etc. Output consists of documents which maу be used directly in controlling all the activities of manufacturing and also auxiliary functions such as wages payment and stock control.

4. Computer time is not cheap. While introducing such а system the cost of a computer and peripheral equipment must be taken into account. But computers have a lot of advantages, one of these being the ability to process large volumes of information at extremely high speeds. The accuracy with which data can be handled is also of major significance. Computer control gives possibilities to obtain a continuous, accurate picture of work in progress. It helps to plan production and optimize resources.

Упр. 5. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

1. What is the aim of production control?

2. What are the advantages of computer control?

 

 

Ключи к заданиям

Урок I

Задание 2

Уnp.1. 1 - 2, 2 - 2, 3 - 3, 4 - 2, 5 - 3.

Упр.7. 1) сложное подлежащее

2) сложное подлежащее

3) сложное дополнение

4) сложное подлежащее

5) сложное дополнение

6) сложное дополнение

7) сложное подлежащее

Урок II

Задание 2

Упр.1. 1, 2, 2,1,2.

Упр.2. 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1.

Упр.4. 2, 4, 3, 2, 1, 5.

Упр. 5. 1, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2.

Упр. 6. 2, 3, 1, 3, 1, 2.

Упр. 8. 2, 1, 2, 1, 1,

Урок III

Задание 2

Упр.2. 1) - 3, 2) - 1, 3) - 3, 4) - 1, 5) - 3.

Упр. 4. 1) - 2, 2) - 1, 3) - 2, 4) - 3, 5) - 2.

Задание 3

Упр. 7. 1) да, 2) нет, 3) да, 4) нет, 5) да.

 









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