VIII. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of the Present Perfect and Past Perfect Tenses.
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VIII. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the use of the Present Perfect and Past Perfect Tenses.



 

1. The scientists and engineers have built an apparatus which makes it possible to test materials which will be used in cosmos. 2. He had collected some information about modern discoveries in the branch of chemistry by the end of the year. 3. Chemists have discovered how to break down compounds which occur naturally into their elements.4. The foundation of the Dubna Institute had played an important role in the development of the world science. 5. They have not solved this problem yet. 6. We have not seen him since he graduated from the Institute. 7. Our scientists have given great attention to the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy. 8. Chemists have made special steels which are widely used in industry. 9. The members of the expedition have collected much material; they may start their research work.

 

IX. Open the brackets using the correct tense.

1. Every day our research workers (carry on, have carried on) great research work. 2. This year our plant (has produced, produces) many new products which are better than those which (are produced, were produced, have been produced) last year. 3. They (solved, have solved) that problem two months ago.

4. They already (completed, have completed) their investigation. 5. He (hasn’t worked, didn’t work) at the problem since he left our Institute. 6. Last year they (applied, have applied) that new method. 7. The tourists (to walk) a long way before they reached the sea. 8. She said she (to change) her plans. 9. By this time tomorrow I (to bring) you the magazine. 10. The rain (to stop) and the sun was shining brightly.

X. Open the brackets using the Future Perfect.

 

1. I (to do) my homework by six o’clock tomorrow.

2. When you come to my place tomorrow, I shall be reading your book.

I (to do) my homework by the time you come.

3. You (to do) this work by next Sunday?

4. How many pages you (to read) by five o’clock tomorrow?

5. She (to leave) by then.

6. I (to take) all my exams by the end of the next week.

7. I (to finish) my English courses by the end of this year.

8. They (to complete) the experiment by Monday.

 

XI. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

1. Люди поняли важность коллективной работы. 2. Мы иногда заканчивали работу раньше. 3. Она думает, что сделает всю работу к пяти часам. 4. Я живу в Москве уже два года. 5. Производительность наших заводов сильно увеличилась в этом году. 6. Мы не встречали его с тех пор, как закончили университет. 7. Более десяти лет прошло с тех пор, как мы виделись друг с другом. 8. Студенты уже повторят грамматику до начала экзамена.

9. Старые методы производства изменились. 10. К сентябрю прошлого года строители построили в нашей области две школы.

 

 

Времена группы Perfect Continuous.

Времена группы Perfect Continuous представляют собой сочетание глагольных форм Perfectи Continuous.

К группе Perfect Continuous относятся три глагольные формы: Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous и Future Perfect Continuous. Все они образуются из вспомогательного глагола to be в форме Present Perfect, Past Perfect или Future Perfect и смыслового глагола в форме первого причастия (Participle I).

Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous
  I have been working   he she has been working it   we you have been working they     I he she had been working it we   you they had been working  

 

 

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

 

 

  I shall   he she will it have been working we shall   you they will  

 

Подобно группе времен Continuous глагольные формы Perfect Continuous обозначают длительноедействие. Это действие всегда охватывает период времени, который предшествует либо моментуречи (для Present Perfect Continuous), либо указанному в предложении моменту в прошлом (для Past Perfect Continuous) или в будущем (для Future Perfect Continuous)

Например:

 

Our scientists and factory workers have been workinghand in hand for many years.

Наши ученые и производственники работают совместно уже много лет.

 

В подобных случаях Present Perfect Continuous переводится на русский язык глаголом в настоящем времени, причем связь между длительным действием в прошлом и настоящим моментом часто передается в русском языке словом уже.

Look at the plan of our work. It is ready; I have been making it for some hours.

Посмотрите на план нашей работы, он готов; я делала его несколько часов.

 

В данном примере глагольная форма have been making выражает длительное действие, законченное непосредственно к моменту речи, и переводится на русский язык глаголом в прошедшем времени.

Сравните глагольные формы Present Perfect и Present Perfect Continuous.

 

Present Perfect:Why have you come so late?

Почему вы пришли так поздно?

Present Perfect Continuous: I have been waiting for you for two hours.

Я уже жду вас два часа.

Сравните глагольные формы Present Continuous и Present Perfect Continuous.

 

Present Continuous: Where is John?

He is working in the laboratory.

Где Джон?

Он работает в лаборатории.

Present Perfect Continuous: He has been working there for many hours.

Он уже работает там в течение нескольких

часов.

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense.

Chemists had been studying the atmosphere for about two thousand years before its composition was discovered.

Химики изучали атмосферу около двух тысяч лет, прежде чем был открыт ее состав.

Глагольная форма had been studying (Past Perfect Continuous) выражает длительное действие, протекавшее до указанного момента (before its composition was discovered) и, возможно, продолжавшееся и после этого момента.

 

Past Perfect Continuous переводится глаголом несовершенного вида в прошедшем времени, чаще всего с наречием уже.

Past Perfect: She had written the article by 10 o’clock yesterday.

Она написаластатью вчера к 10 часам.

 

Past Perfect Continuous:Shehad been writingit for two hours when you came.

Она уже писала ее в течение двух часов, когда вы пришли.

Past Continuous: When the mother came home her children were

sleeping;

Past Perfect Continuous: they had been sleeping for two hours

Когда мать вернулась домой, дети спали; они

спали уже два часа.

 

Future Perfect Continuous

Shewill have been writingher article for two hours by 10 o’clock tomorrow.

Завтра к десяти часам она уже будет писать свою статью в течение двух часов.

 

Exercises:

 

I. Read the situations and complete the sentences.

 

1. The rain started two hours ago. It’s still raining now. It _____ for two hours.

2. We started waiting for the bus 20 minutes ago. We’re still waiting now. We _____ for 20 minutes.

3. I started Spanish classes in December. I’m still learning Spanish now. I _____ since December.

4. Ann began looking for a job six months ago. She is still looking for it now. Ann _____ for six months.

5. Mary started working in London on 18 January. She’s still working there now. Mary _____ since 18 January.

 

II. Put the verb into the Present Continuous or Present Perfect Continuous.

 

1. Maria _____ (learn) English for two years.

2. Why _____ (you/look) at me like that?

3. We always go to Ireland for our holidays. We _____ (go) there for years.

4. I _____ (think) about what you said and I’ve decided to take your advice.

5. Sarah is very tired. She _____ (work) very hard recently.

III. Read the situations and make the sentences from the words in brackets.

 

1. I was very tired when I arrived home. (I/work/hard all day) _____.

2. There was nobody in the room but there was a smell of cigarettes.

(Somebody/smoke/in the room) _____.

3. Ann woke up in the middle of the night. She was frightened and didn’t know where she was. (She/dream) _____.

4. When I got home, Mike was sitting in front of the TV. He had just turned it off. (He/watch/TV) ____.

 

IV. Put the verb into the most suitable form (Past Continuous, Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous).

 

1. It was very noisy next door. Our neighbours _____ (have) a party.

2. We were good friends. We _____ (know) each other for a long time.

3. Mary was sitting on the ground. She was out of breath. She _____ (run).

4. Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He _____ (look) for his contact lens.

5. I was sad when I sold my car. I _____ (have) it for a very long time.

6. We were extremely tired at the end of the journey. We _____ (travel) for more than 24 hours.









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