Find the English equivalents for the following phrases and word combinations.
Лекции.ИНФО


Find the English equivalents for the following phrases and word combinations.



Арестованный человек

Быть помещенным в камеру

Поговорить с адвокатом бесплатно

Комната для задержания несовершеннолетних

Давать показания в суде

Право хранить молчание

Человек, подозреваемый в совершении преступления

Обвинить кого-либо в чем-либо


Unit 6 CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION

Read and translate the text. Create a vocabulary list on the topic.

INVESTIGATION

 

"Any person accused of committing a crime shall be considered innocent until his (her) guilt is proven in accordance with the procedure stipulated by Federal law and is confirmed by a court sentence which has entered into legal force." (Article 49 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation).

The investigator and the court base their conclusions about the guilt of the accused in accordance with the evidence. Evidence in a criminal case is facts, on the basis of which the investigating authorities and the court establish the existence or absence of a socially dangerous act, the guilt of the person committing the act and other circumstances of the case.

Having received information that a crime has been committed, the investigator talks to people who may help him in establish­ing the circumstances of the crime. To obtain exhibits the investigator inspects the scene of the crime. The testimony of witnesses is also a type of evidence. A witness is a person who is aware of facts relevant to a criminal case. When he is asked, a witness must appear before the investigator or in court. It is the duty of a witness to give all information at his disposal concerning the case and the accused.

The investigator, the police, the prosecutor and the court establish the facts from the testimony of witnesses, injured parties, suspects, accused, the opinions of experts, exhibits, the records of the investi­gation and court proceedings, and other documents.

Forensic science and scientific expertise can be very helpful during the investigation of many crimes, particularly fires where arson is suspected, cases involving DNA profiling and offences involving the use of firearms. When presented with a suspect weapon, the expert is able to say whether or not it was the weapon used in a crime. DNA profiling is a revolutionary method which can identify an individual from a specimen of blood, hair roots, tissue, etc. The scientists have experience in fire-scene examination, including large industrial fires and vehicle fires. The experts also use fingerprinting. Today, law enforcement agencies use computers to digitally record fingerprints and to transmit them to other agencies for comparison. By comparing fingerprints at the scene of a crime with the fingerprint record of suspected persons, officials can establish absolute proof of the presence or identity of a person.

 

Put the following sentences into the correct order.

The testimony of witnesses is also a type of evidence.
When presented with a suspect weapon, the expert is able to say whether or not it was the weapon used in a crime.
To obtain exhibits the investigator inspects the scene of the crime.
The investigator and the court base their conclusions about the guilt of the accused in accordance with the evidence.

 

3. Say whether the statements are true, false or not stated.

The investigator and the court base their conclusions about the guilt of the accused in accordance with the jury’s opinion.

The testimony of witnesses is often anonymous.

An accused is a person who is aware of facts relevant to a criminal case.

A witness is a person who is aware of facts relevant to a criminal case.

DNA profiling is a revolutionary method which can identify an individual from a specimen of blood, hair roots, tissue, etc.

 

Make word combinations.

1 to commit a) science
2 the scene b) case
3 to obtain c) the guilt
4 forensic d) of the crime
5 preliminary e) investigation
6 a criminal f) a crime
7 to enter g) into legal force
8 to prove h) exhibits

 

Put in the correct question tags.

1) To obtain exhibits the investigator inspects the scene of the crime …?

2) The testimony of witnesses is a type of evidence, …?

3) The investigator talks to the persons who may help him in establish­ing the circumstances of the case, …?

 

Find the English equivalents for the following phrases and word combinations.

Виновность обвиняемого

Уголовное дело

Получить вещественные доказательства

Осмотреть место преступления

Показания свидетелей

Судебная медицина и научная экспертиза

Следователь, следствие/расследование

Отпечатки пальцев


Unit 7 CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEMS

Read and translate the text. Create a vocabulary list on the topic.

COURTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

 

There are two main reasons for variety of courts. One is that a particular court can specialize in particular kinds of cases. The other is so that a person, who feels that his case was not fairly treated in a lower court, can appeal to a higher court. A court in which a case is first heard is called the court of first instance. A court of second instance is one which examines appeals and protests against sentences and decisions of courts of first instance. In almost all cases it is possible to appeal to a higher court.

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation is the highest judicial body for civil, criminal, administrative and other cases. It tries the most important cases and hears appeals against the judgements and sentences of other courts. The Supreme Arbitration Court is the highest judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases examined by courts of arbitration. The basic judicial body is the district court. District courts try both crimi­nal and civil cases.

In all courts cases are tried in public. The participants in the trial (the prosecutor, the lawyers, the plaintiff, the judge, the defendant and the oth­ers) speak in the open court. The accused is guaranteed the right to defend. The press has the right to be present. Trial without participation of both sides is not allowed. The judges are independent and must obey the law.

The British judicial system is pyramidal in organization. At the top of the pyramid is the House of Lords. Beneath it is the Court of Appeal which hears both criminal and civil cases. Beneath these appellate courts are two separate systems of trial courts: one for criminal cases, the other for civil cases.

The highest judicial organ of the USA is the Supreme Court. Then there are federal Courts of Appeals. The district courts are the lowest courts in American judicial system.

 

Put the following sentences into the correct order.

The British judicial system is pyramidal in organization.
Trial without participation of both sides is not allowed.
A court in which a case is first heard is called the court of first instance.
The highest judicial organ of the USA is the Supreme Court.
The accused is guaranteed the right to defend.

 

Say whether the statements are true, false or not stated.

A court in which a case is first heard is called the court of appeals.

Trial without participation of both sides is not allowed.

A Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President.

In Great Britain there is no special training for judges.

The highest judicial organ of Great Britain is the House of Lords.

 

Make word combinations.

1 decision a) disputes
2 judicial b) of the court
3 to hear / to try / to decide / to examine c) the law
4 to settle d) cases
5 to appeal e) to defend
6 to obey f) courts
7 lower / higher / trial g) a case
8 civil / criminal / administrative h) body / system
9 right i) to a higher court

 

Put in the correct question tags.

1) The participants in the trial speak in the open court, …?

2) In almost all cases it is possible to appeal to a higher court, …?

3) The judges are independent, …?

 

Find the English equivalents for the following phrases and word combinations.

Суд первой инстанции

Оспаривать приговоры и решения судов

Верховный суд

Апелляционный суд

Районные суды

Подавать апелляцию в вышестоящий суд

Высший юридический орган

Рассматривать/заслушивать как уголовные, так и гражданские дела


Unit 8 ORGANIZED CRIME









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