Text B. Friendly to the Environment

Text B. Friendly to the Environment




"In the time it takes to read this, more than a million pounds of materials that could have been recycled will be thrown away all over California."—Californians Against Waste (CAW) Newsletter

We are running out of space in which to discard our garbage, and our current methods of disposing of it are endangering the environment. One solution to this problem is recycling.

Recycling is the process of collecting used materials and remanufacturing them into new products instead of throwing them away. This process is important because it reduces the trash in overcrowded landfills, salvages materials that we can use to make new products, and saves our natural resources.

Used products may be converted or reutilized in a number of ways. Paper is reprocessed into new sheets, glass is cleaned and remolded, and plastic is melted and formed into new products such as carpet backing, fence posts, and drainage pipes.

Recycling is being done worldwide. Japan recycles 95% of its bottles and 50% of its aluminum; the United States recycles only 20% of its bottles and 38% of its aluminum. In Germany a new law requires product manufacturers to create ways of reusing their packaging material.

Helping to solve the garbage crisis is something everyone can do if they just remember the three Rs: "reduce, reuse,andrecycle."

Business Goes Green!

Many cities around the world today are heavily polluted. Careless manufacturing processes em­ployed by some industries and lack of consumer demand for environmentally safe products have contributed to the pollution problem. One result is that millions of tons of glass, paper, plastic, and metal containers are produced, and these are diffi­cult to dispose of.

However, today, more and more consumers are choosing "green" and demanding that the prod­ucts they buy are safe for the environment. Before they buy a product, they ask questions like these: "Will this hairspray damage the ozone layer?" "Is the packaging biodegradable?" "Will it break down in a trash dump?" "Can this metal container be recycled or can it only be used once?"

A recent survey showed that two out of five adults now consider the environmental safety of a product before they buy it. This means that com­panies must now change the way they make and sell their products to make sure that they are "green", that is, friendly to the environment.

Only a few years ago, it was impossible to find green products in supermarkets, but now there are hundreds. Some supermarket products carry la­bels to show that the product is green. Some com­panies have made the manufacturing of clean and safe products their main selling point and empha­size it in their advertising.

The concern for a safer and cleaner environment is making companies rethink how they do business. No longer will the public accept the old attitude of "Buy it, use it, throw it away, and for­get it." The public pressure is on, and gradually business is cleaning up its act.

The symbol of TM-An official Japan

recyclability. mark of Environment

Environment Canada Association

(used with permission). logo.



run out of, v истощить свой запас

garbage, n мусор, отбросы

dispose, v ликвидировать

reduce, v уменьшать, сокращать

trash, n отбросы, хлам, мусор, макулатура

landfill, n территория

salvage, v спасать, собирать

mold, v отливать в форму, формовать

melt, v плавить, растапливать

consumer demand потребительский спрос

lack, n отсутствие, недостаток

survey, n исследование

sell (sold, sold), v продавать

emphasize, v обращать внимание, подчеркивать

concern, n забота



I. Study the words to text B.


II. Read the text ‘Friendly to the Environment’. Answer the questions below:

1. What is recycling?

2. Why is the process of recycling important? Prove it by the text.

3. What may paper be reprocessed into?

4. What can be done with glass and plastic?

5. Which country recycles more – Japan or the US?

6. What do the three Rs stand for?


III. Choose the correct answer.

1. Many people choose green products because they are ... .

a) cheaper

b) better made

c) environmentally safer

2. Corporations are producing more green products because ... .

a) they have to pay higher taxes

b) it costs less

c) consumers want to buy them

3. Nowadays ... consumers consider the environmental safety of products before they buy them.

a) all

b) many

c) no


IV. Write the definitions for the following words and phrases:

a) “green” products ______

b) biodegradable packaging _____

c) recycling _____

d) selling point _____



The warming of the climate on Earth that could only be reg­istered by experts at the begin­ning of the century is obvious to everybody in our day. The process has been set off by the rising content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and is directly traceable to human activity: the burning of fuels, the spewing of industrial exhausts, the felling of forests, and erosion of farmlands. However, some of the carbon dioxide is effectively absorbed from the air by the ocean and the green plants on land. Who will win in this "competition" be­tween Man and Nature? What will happen to the global cli­mate in a longer run, beyond the turn of this century?

A mathematical model has been developed by some em­ployees of the Computer Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences in an at­tempt to answer these ques­tions. The model is described by a system of 1,500 differen­tial equations using such vari­ables as amounts of carbon dioxide in the biomass of living plants and in humus. To obtain accurate results, the scholars divided the land mass on the geographical map into meshes measuring 4 by 5 degrees. They have taken in the mean annual temperature, rainfall, and plant production over the year, since these characteris­tics are influenced by the car­bon dioxide content in the at­mosphere. The analysis has been carried out for such re­gions as Europe, the tropical forests, Canada, the USA, and this country since 1860 and has been extended till the year 2000.

It turned out that carbon dioxide is absorbed in all the regions, the forests in the tem­perate zone of the Northern Hemisphere playing the most significant role in the process. However, up to 53 percent of carbon dioxide contributed by industrial exhausts remains in the atmosphere (in the tropical forest zone the figure is con­siderably lower, while in the temperate and northern re­gions it is rising continuously). Apparently, plants can no longer absorb these excessive amounts of carbon dioxide. According to some estimates, the capability of green plants on land to absorb carbon dioxide declined after 2000, and at some point be­tween 2000 and 2030 the land itself may become a source of carbon dioxide!

When this will happen, if at all, depends on many factors, in the first place, on the eco­logical strategy of mankind which appears to be climbing further out on to the limb.


A. Tarko, B. Bogatyrev, and A, Kirilenko, "The Role of Countries and Regions in the Formation of the Global Carbon Budget in the Atmosphere", Doklady Akademit Nauk, 1992, Vol. 322, No. 2 (in Russian).

I. Read the text ‘Man the Loser?’ Find in the text the information about a mathematical model developed by the Computer Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. What purpose is it designed for?


II. Describe the mathematical model developed by some employees of the Computer Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. You may do it either in Russian or in English.


III. Speak on the results of the investigation (either in Russian or in English).


IV. Suggest another headline for text C.


C o n v e r s a t i o n

Environment and Ecology


I. Make sure you can translate the following text both ways – from English into Russian and vice versa.


Ecology is the science of how living things are related to their environment. Many people all over the world are concerned about the ecology today. The word "ecology" came from the Greek which means "home". This idea of "home" includes the whole planet of ours. We must protect our planet from littering, air pollution, water pollution, de­struction of natural resources. Экология — это наука о том, как живые су­щества связаны с окружающей средой. Многие люди во всем мире обеспокоены состоянием эко­логии в настоящее время. Слово «экология» произошло от греческого слова, которое означа­ет «дом». Это понятие «дом» включает всю нашу планету в целом. Мы должны защищать нашу планету от засорения, загрязнения воздуха, во­ды, уничтожения природных ресурсов.  
We know that polluted air, land and water are harmful to plants, animals and people. Many terri­tories, lakes, rivers, seas, oceans and the atmo­sphere are polluted with all kinds of technological, chemical, nuclear and other wastes. Awful harm is caused to our home by nuclear tests, atom bombs and accidents on the atomic power stations.   Мы знаем: загрязненный воздух, земля и во­да вредны растениям, животным и людям. Мно­гие территории, озера, реки, моря, океаны и воздух загрязнены различными технологиче­скими, химическими, ядерными и другими от­ходами. Ужасный вред причиняют нашему дому испытания ядерного оружия, атомных бомб и аварии на атомных электростанциях.  
How can we keep our earth clean? Как мы можем сохранить нашу землю чис­той?  
Don't buy drinks in plastic bottles. These bot­tles can't be recycled and plastic won't even de-grade. If you throw this bottle, it will still litter the earth for ever. Only buy water and other drinks in aluminium cans or glass bottles. Buy milk and juice in cartons. Glass, aluminium and carton can be recycled.   Не покупайте напитки в пластиковых бутыл­ках. Эти бутылки не могут быть переработаны, а сам пластик никогда не разрушится. Если вы выбросите такую бутылку, это загрязнит нашу землю навсегда. Покупайте воду и другие на­питки в алюминиевых банках или стеклянных бутылках. Покупайте молоко и сок в картонных пакетах. Стекло, алюминий и картон могут быть переработаны.  
The energy saved from one recycled aluminium can will operate a television set for three hours. If you throw an aluminium can out of the train win­dow, it will still litter the earth up to 500 years later. If you throw the glass bottle you litter the earth for ever.   Энергия, сэкономленная при переработке од­ной алюминиевой банки, даст возможность работать одному телевизору в течение трех часов. Если вы выбросите алюминиевую банку из окна поезда, это загрязнит землю на 500 лет. Если вы выбрасываете стеклянную бутылку, вы загрязняете землю навсегда.  
It takes 500 000 trees just to make the newspa­pers we read every Sunday. Save your family newspapers. Find out how to recycle newspapers in your area. Most paper thrown away in the office just has printing on one side. So you can use the blank side for writing or drawing.   Надо израсходовать 500 000 деревьев просто для того, чтобы получать газеты каждое воскре­сенье. Сохраняйте газеты вашей семьи. Узнай­те, как перерабатывают газеты там, где вы жи­вете. Большая часть бумаги, выбрасываемая в учреждениях, имеет текст на одной стороне. Поэтому вы можете использовать чистую сто­рону для письма или рисования.

II. Read the text ‘Environmental Protection’. Answer the questions after it.


Environmental Protection

The twentieth century is known to be the century of the scientific and technological progress. The achievements of the mankind in mechanization and automation of industrial processes, in chemical industry and conquering outer space, in the creation of atomic power stations and ships are amazing.

But at the same time this progress gave birth to a very serious problem – the poisoning of our planet, its land, its air and water. The ecological harmony is disturbed. The seas are filled with industrial and nuclear waste, chemicals and fertilizers. The concentration of smoke in the air is so high in some industrial centers that it is deadly dangerous just to breathe there.

Many species of flora and fauna have disappeared. Some of them are on the brink of extinction, many have been put down into the “Red Book of Nature”. Every hour some kinds of animals and plants die out for ever.

Acid rains, the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion caused by harmful substances emitted by industrial enterprises are much spoken about.

Unfortunately some means of transport can be regarded as offenders in poisoning the environment.

Atomic power plants are worth mentioning as a grave threat to the environment nowadays. The pollution of the environment is hard to ignore.

The problem of environmental protection has become an extremely important part of political programmes in many countries nowadays.

The Environmental Movement had gained a lot of supporters long before our country joined it. Many laws and vital decisions on the problem have been adopted, many measures have been taken to protect our forests, rivers, lakes and seas.

However, the Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the point of vanishing. The environmental problems have grown beyond the concern of a single country. Their solution requires the cooperation of all nations.

It is obvious, that only our joint effort will help to avoid a global catastrophe.

Questions to be answered

1. The environmental pollution is a very serious problem nowadays, isn’t it?

2. What gave birth to the problem of poisoning our planet?

3. Why have a lot of species disappeared and still more are on the brink of extinction?

4. Have you ever heard of the “Red Book of Nature”? What kinds of animals are registered in it?

5. What causes acid rains, green house effect and ozone depletion?

6. Atomic power plants do both good and harm, don’t they? Give your reasons.

7. Can transport means be considered a kind of threat to the environment?

8. What movement had gained a lot of supporters before our country joined it?

9. What do many adopted laws and measures aim at?

10. Do students of our University join the Environment Movement?


IV. Make a summary of the text ’Environmental Protection’.


V. Speak on the problem of pollution. Use the key-words:


pollution, to breathe, pure water, burned gas, harmful, invisible, disease, to affect, lack, to reduce, waste, to spray, garbage and trash, to pack down, acid rain, nuclear energy, ozone layer, to extinct, wild life.


VI. Deliver a lecture on the problems of environment as if you were

· a teacher of ecology and environmental protection;

· a member of the Ecological International of the Green Cross and Crescent;

· Chairman of the new International Non-Governmental Board.


VII. Speak on the reasons which made scientists set up an international industrial ecological consortium.


VIII. Describe the ways of solving the problems of environmental protection.


IX. Describe the ecological problems of our city. What has been done and is being done for their solution?


X. Work in pairs. Imagine you are a journalist; your fellow-student is Chairman of the new International Non-Governmental Board. Interview him.

D i a l o g u e s


a) Read the short dialogues in pairs


A. Mum, why are you so upset?

B. The window glasses get dirty so shortly and the winter is so long.

A. This is air pollution. All big cities have this problem.



A. Alice, why are you so upset? What’s happened?

B. My best bathing suit was spoilt this summer. I came out of the sea with a black mineral oil spot on it though the sea water looked so clear.

A. Oh, dear! Don’t take it ill. With “Tide” this problem will be solved, I believe.



A. Daddy, why are you so upset? What’s wrong?

B. Oh, my shirt smells awfully because our mum aired it outdoors.

A. Take it easy. I’ll give you another one.



A. Granny, why are you so upset?

B. I can’t sleep quietly because of the noise of all those cars, lorries, buses. Even late at night!

A. Good heavens! This is the scientific and technological progress of the 20-th century. How lucky we are that we do not live near the airport.


b) Memorize the dialogues and reproduce them.


c) Make up your own dialogues on a similar topic.




J u s t f o r F u n


I. Read the following quotations and comment on them.


The “boundless” blue sky, the ocean which gives us breath and protects us from the endless black and death, is but an infinitesimally thin film. How dangerous it is to threaten even the smallest part of this gossamer covering, this conserver of life.

-Vladimir Shatalov,

quoted in The Home Planet, 1988

The greatness of a nation can be judged by the way its animals are treated.

-Mohandas Gandhi

The frog does not drink up the pond in which he lives.

-Indian Proverb

This we know. The earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth. This we know. All things are connected like the blood which unites one family. All things are connected.

Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of the earth. Man did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself.

-Chief Seattle

II. It’s interesting to know.

Did you know?

Eight million tons of oil are spilled into the Earth’s oceans every year.

Did you know? Glass produced from recycled glass instead of raw material reduces related air pollution by 20% and water pollution by 50%.

Did you know?

American workplaces discard enough paper each year to build a 12-foot high wall stretching from Los-Angeles to New York.

Did you know?

Madagascar is home to at least 150,000 living species found nowhere else in the world.

Did you know

One ton of recycled paper can save 17 trees

and three cubic yards of landfill space.


III. Do this puzzle.




Across Down

1. Some species are this 1.An endangered species

9. Large predatory cat 2.Near (poetic)

10. Road (abbr.) 3.Domestic animal

11. What we breathe 4.Indefinite article

13. That which encloses some animals 5.A color

before birth 6.Past-tense marker

14. Exist 7.A time to celebrate the

15. Planting this will help the environment (2 words)

environment 8.Expire; cease to live

16. Often pronounced like "f 12.Scan written matter with the eyes

17. Finger-like part of the foot 14.Made (someone) uninterested by

18. That thing dull talk; drilled a hole

19. Gains; deserves; gets (money) by 15.The seventh note in the sol-fa

working musical scale (between la and do); a

20. Past tense of hide tropical plant

22. North-Northeast 17.Light brown

23. Strange; unusual; opposite of even 19.The power that does work and

24. Endangered ocean animal drives machines

26. Small pie 21. Not working; not doing anything

29. South America (abbr.) 23. Exclamation of surprise

30. Japanese unit of money 24. A liquid necessary for life; H2O

31. Sweet substance 25. Go in

33. Preposition 27. Motor car; vehicle for carrying

35. Write on a machine; class or sort people

36. Follow as a result; happen 28. Narrow magnetic material used for

afterwards recording sound

38. Negative 32. Concerning; about; second note or

39. At liberty; not enslaved the sol-fa musical scale

34. Number; unit

37. Southeast



U n i t 7


G r a m m a r: 1. Continuous Tenses. Active Voice Present Continuous Past Continuous Future Continuous 2. Word-building. The suffixes of adjectives T e x t s: A. He Started Britain’s Railways B. C. Inventors and Their Inventions   C o n v e r s a t i o n: The Progress of Science  


Г р а м м а т и ч е с к и й м а т е р и а л


1. Времена группы Continuous.

(Continuous Tenses. Продолженные времена)

Времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future) выражают незаконченное действие, т. е. действие в процессе его совершения. Времена группы Continuous образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и причастия настоящего времени (Present Participle) смыслового глагола.


to be asking
am is asking are was asking were shall be asking will



Present Continuous Tense (Active Voice)

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
I am asking He is asking We are asking Am I asking ? Is he asking ? Are we asking ? I am not asking He is not asking We are not asking


1. а) При образовании вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол to be ставится перед подлежащим;

б) при образовании отрицательной формы отрицание not ставится после вспомогательного глагола to be.


Present Continuous Tense употребляется для выражения действия, происходящего в момент речи или в отрезок времени, к которому момент речи относится.

The students are busy now, they are writing their test papers.

Студенты сейчас заняты, они пишут контрольную работу.


Scientists all over the world are looking for new scientific methods.

Ученые всего мира ищут новые научные методы.


2. Глаголы в Present Continuous Tense переводятся на русский язык глаголами настоящего времени несовершенного вида.


Past Continuous Tense (Active Voice)

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
I was asking We were asking Was I asking ? Were we asking ? I was not asking We were not asking


Past Continuous Tense употребляется для выражения длительного незаконченного действия, имевшего место в определенный момент или период времени в прошлом. Этот момент или период времени может быть выражен:

а) обстоятельствами типа:

at 7 o’clock yesterday - вчера в 7 часов;
from 2 to 5 o’clock last Sunday - в прошлое воскресенье с 2-х до 5-и часов;
all day long - весь день;
all the time - все время;
the whole day - целый день.


I was working in the library the whole day yesterday.

Вчера я целый день работал в библиотеке.


б) другим действием в прошлом, выраженным глаголом в Past Indefinite Tense.

We were discussing a very important problem when he came in.

Мы обсуждали очень важную проблему, когда он вошел.


Глаголы в Past Continuous Tense переводятся на русский язык глаголами прошедшего времени несовершенного вида.


Future Continuous Tense (Active Voice)

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
I shall be asking He will be asking Shall I be asking ? Will he be asking ? I shall not be asking He will not be asking

Обратите внимание!

а) При образовании вопросительной формы первый вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим;

б) при образовании отрицательной формы отрицание not ставится после первого вспомогательного глагола.


Future Continuous Tense употребляется для выражения действия, которое будет происходить в определенный момент или период времени в будущем. Этот момент или период времени может быть выражен:

а) обстоятельствами типа:

at 5 o’clock tomorrow - завтра в 5 часов;
from 5 till 7 next Saturday -   с 5-ти до 7-и в следующую субботу; и т. п.


Tomorrow they will be translating the article from 5 till 6.

Они будут переводить статью с 5-и до 6-и завтра.


б) другим действием в будущем, выраженным глаголом в Present Indefinite Tense.

I shall be writing the report when he comes back.

Я буду писать доклад, когда он вернется.


Обратите внимание!

Глаголы в Future Continuous Tense переводятся на русский язык глаголами будущего времени несовершенного вида.



1. Во временах группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future), как правило, не употребляются глаголы: to be - быть; to have - иметь; to see - видеть; to hear - слышать; to feel - чувствовать; to know - знать; to believe - верить; to like - нравиться; to understand - понимать; to seem - казаться; to love - любить; to hate - ненавидеть; to desire - желать; to consider - полагать; to belong - принадлежать.

2. Глагол to go в форме Continuous с последующим инфинитивом с частицей to обозначает намерение совершить действие в ближайшем будущем. На русский язык часто переводится словом собираться.

I am going to write a letter.

Я собираюсь написать письмо.

It is going to rain.

Скоро пойдет дождь. (Собирается дождь.)


2. Словообразование. Суффиксы прилагательных

(Word-building. The suffixes of adjectives)



а) суффиксы, образующие прилагательные от существительных:


- al

centre - центр central - центральный

nation - нация national - национальный

- ous

danger - опасность dangerous - опасный

fame - слава famous - знаменитый

- ful

use - польза useful - полезный

beauty - красота beautiful - прекрасный

- ic

history - история historic - исторический

energy - энергия energetic - энергичный

- y

ice - лед icy - ледяной

luck - удача lucky - удачливый


б) суффиксы, образующие прилагательные от глаголов:


- able, - ible

to break - ломать breakable - ломкий

to express - выражать expressible – выразитель-


- ant, - ent

to depend - зависеть dependent - зависимый

to resist - сопротивляться resistant - оказывающий сопротивление

- ive

to act - действовать active - активный

to conduct - проводить conductive - проводящий

Обратите внимание!

1. Суффикс - less указывает на отсутствие качества (противоположно значению суффикса - ful):

use - польза useful - полезный

useless - бесполезный

power - сила powerful - сильный

powerless - бессильный


2. Суффикс - ish указывает на наличие признака в слабой степени или на принадлежность к национальности:

red - красный reddish - красноватый

Pole - поляк Polish - польский









I. Form Participle I from the verbs given below:

to do, to take, to become, to carry, to go, to change, to turn, to flow, to look for, to perform, to talk, to work, to observe, to examine, to grow, to boil, to get, to set.


II. Use the correct form of the verb to be.

1. I ... taking five courses this semester. 2. Bill ... trying to improve his English. 3. John and Mary ... talking on the phone. 4. I need an umbrella because it ... raining. 5. We ... walking down the street when it began to rain. 6. I couldn’t get you on the phone last night, who ... you talking to so long? 7. What ... you doing now? 8. She ... listening to her favourite music at 8 o’clock tomorrow. 9. What ... you ... doing when I come?


III. Find the predicates in the following sentences. Define their tense forms. Translate the sentences.

1. The laboratory assistant is writing down the data in the register book. 2. The water in the tube is boiling. 3. The importance of mathematics will be constantly increasing. 4. Even in his childhood Newton was searching out the secrets of nature. 5. The laser is finding the most extensive application in the field of communications. 6. In the process of labour man himself was constantly changing. 7. The group of scientists will be investigating this problem for some years. 8. In 1880 Bessemer’s factory was producing 830,000 tons of steel a year. 9. The laboratory will be carrying on the same research in the coming two or three years. 10. The thermal fluctuations of plasma are continually changing.


IV. Make the following sentences: a) negative; b) interrogative (general questions).

1. Bessemer was always trying some new idea. 2. Our colleagues are now performing a new set of experiments. 3. The conference is coming to an end now. 4. They will be collecting the data for six weeks. 5. We were discussing some recent works in the field of physics at the conference yesterday. 6. A direct-current motor is driving water-cooling pumps. 7. The sun is emitting energy. 8. He was conducting important observations for some hours two days ago. 9. She will be talking to her scientific adviser at 6 p.m. tomorrow. 10. I shall be writing about some works in the field of my speciality tomorrow’s night.


V. Put all possible special questions.

1. Everybody is talking about the new discovery. 2. They are listening to the lecturer with great attention. 3. My colleagues were taking part in the discussion on the problems of environment all day long yesterday. 4. I am going to do the work all by myself. 5. We are looking for new ideas in science. 6. Before Edison was nine he was collecting things. 7. We shall be discussing your paper first at 3 o’clock the day after tomorrow. 8. They are going to prepare everything for the experiment. 9. Roentgen was working on the problem of electricity during 1895. 10. My wife will be preparing for the report from 5 till 7 next Monday.


VI. Use Present Continuous or Present Indefinite.

1. We (to go) to the seaside every summer. 2. Listen ! Somebody (to knock) on the door. 3. How often you (to wash) your dog ? 4. She can’t come to the phone. She (to wash) her hair . 5. Where (to be) Kate ? She usually (to sit) in the front row. I (not to know) why she (to sit) here now. 6. Please, be quiet ! The baby (to sleep). 7. What you (to laugh) at ? 8. The country-side (to be) wonderful especially when it (to snow). 9. Why you (to smoke) here ? - And where people usually (to smoke) in this building ?


VII. Complete the sentences using Past Continuous.

1. When you came home ... . 2. When the telephone rang ... . 3. When I entered ... . 4. When we arrived in Moscow ... . 5. When the police came ... . 6. While she was cooking ... . 7. While I was finishing my homework ... .


VIII. Use Past Indefinite or Past Continuous.

1. I (to play) computer games yesterday. 2. He (to play) computer games from two till three yesterday. 3. What Nick (to do) when you came to his place ? 4. What you (to do) when I rang you up ? 5. What he (to do) yesterday ? - He (to read) a book. 6. What he (to do) the whole evening yesterday ? - He (to play) the piano. 7. When I came into the kitchen mother (to cook). 8. I (to go) to the cinema yesterday. 9. I (not to write) a letter to my friend the day before yesterday. 10. Last summer we (to be) in the country.


IX. Use the verbs in Future Continuous.

1. At this time tomorrow we (to have) an English class. 2. Don’t worry ! I (to write) letters to you regularly. 3. When you come they (to train) in the gym. 4. Don’t wait for me. I (to work) for some time. 5. While you are away we (to look after) your children. 6. Don’t leave. We (to have) tea in a few minutes.


X. Match parts A and B.


1. She leaves the house at 8.30 1. once a week

2. I’ll be studying in the library 2. next week

3. She is talking to the boss 3. at this time yesterday

4. He goes to the office by car 4. the whole day yesterday

5. I write letters to him 5. tomorrow morning

6. Our exams will be over 6. sometimes

7. It was snowing 7. every day

8. My brother was watching TV 8. now


XI. Choose the proper predicate. Explain your choice.

1. Faraday made some notes when he (was listening, listened) to the lecturer. 2. All over the world hang-gliders (дельтапланы) (are becoming, become) more and more popular. 3. As centuries passed, various handicrafts (developed, were developing). 4. The team of the researchers (has developed, is developing) already a new technique. 5. They often (are speaking, speak) on the subject in general. 6. The new laboratory assistant (is seeming, seems) very efficient. 7. He (is going, will be going) to finish this work this month. 8. The scientist (will be reporting, will report) the observations at the coming symposium. 9. These studies (are being, are) of particular importance. 10. I (have obtained, is obtaining) recently some further information on the subject.


XII. Use the correct tense forms of the verbs given in brackets.

1. The engineer (to explain) the operation of this device now. 2. Each scientist usually (to run) his test under different conditions. 3. The talk (to bring about) a discussion at the last conference. 4. If the atom (to have) a shortage of electrons, it will have a positive charge. 5. Our laboratory (to develop) a new semiconductor device this month. 6. Last night he (to speak) in favour of our suggestion. 7. The test (to come) to an end by the time they came. 8. The authors (to observe) the phenomenon in studies of a different kind all the year round. 9. At present my research group (to conduct) a series of experiments. 10. After the authors (to observe) the phenomenon in studies of a different kind they (to take up) the problem. 11. I currently (to collect) data for my scientific work.


XIII. Use to be going to instead of will + Infinitive.

1. He’ll finish his article in two days. 2. Prof. B. will complete his research this year. 3. They’ll report the observations at the coming symposium. 4. The conference will start its work at 10 in the morning. 5. Your co-worker will be busy with his experiment the whole day tomorrow. 6. The laboratory of our University will take up the study of this phenomenon in the near future. 7. They will have the discussion at the end of the meeting. 8. The study of such complex problems will be difficult. 9. The authors of this discovery will publish the results of their work. 10. We’ll be through with the experiment in about two hours.


XIV. Answer the questions according to the model.

Model: - What are you planning to do on Sunday ?

- I am going to have a rest.


1. What are you planning to do after classes ? 2. What are you planning to do tonight ? 3. What are you planning to do at the weekend ? 4. What is your family planning to do on holidays ? 5. When is your friend planning to marry ?


XV. Ask your fellow students questions about their plans for the future. Use to be going to and the following words and phrases:

tonight, at the weekend, in summer, tomorrow, next month, after the exams, when you graduate from the University, after the party, next year.


XVI. Translate into English:

1. Он закончил университет 3 года назад и теперь собирается поступать в аспирантуру. 2. Что вы делали вчера в это время ? 3. Кто-то стучит, откройте дверь. 4. Я буду ждать тебя у входа в университет. 5. У них экскурсия по городу. Они сейчас осматривают достопримечательности Тулы. 6. Землетрясение в Японии в 1995 году принесло массу разрушений. 7. Если ты последуешь моему совету, тебе потребуется меньше времени на подготовку к экзаменам. 8. Если я потрачу эти деньги, я не куплю подарки к Рождеству. 9. Дождь всё ещё шел, когда мы вышли из дома. 10. - Все уже ушли ? - Да, ушли 5 минут назад. 11. Она не хотела говорить об ошибках, которые сделала в письменной работе. 12. - Вы когда-нибудь были на заводе ? - Да, много раз. 13. Ты уже сдал экзамен по математике ? Когда ты его сдавал ? А когда ты собираешься сдавать физику ? 14. Когда Ваш отец закончил университет ? А что он делает сейчас ? Где работает ? 15. - Где отец ? - Он в кухне. - Что он там делает ? - Он готовит нам ужин. 16. - Тихо! Идет лекция. Все слушают лектора с большим вниманием. - Когда началась лекция ? - В 9 часов. 17. Когда мы вошли в лабораторию, инженер объяснял действие нового прибора.


XVII. a) Write the verbs from which the following adjectives are derived:

reliable, suitable, remarkable, exhaustible, different, considerable, extensive, notable, conductive, productive, removable, sufficient, expensive, effective;


b) write the nouns from which the following adjectives are derived:

useful, economic, advantageous, careful, conventional, electronic, powerless, dangerous, industrial, technological, waterless, practical, successful.


XVIII. Choose the right suffix to derive adjectives from the following words:


beauty efficiency help importance wonder product magnet profit luck child to invent to depend to separate to remark to comfort to observe to change to avail to permit to value - able - ive - ful - ant - ic - ent - y - ish





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