Scientific and technological developments have drastically changed life on our planet.
2. Science and technology are closely related.
3. Many modern technologies depend on science.
4. Technology provides science with new and accurate instruments.
5. Men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques.
6. We say that we live in an age of science and technology.
7. Industrial technology began about 200 years ago.
IX. Answer the following questions:
1. What role has scientific and technological development played in man’s life?
2. What proves that science and technology are closely related today?
3. What does the term technology refer to?
4. What does the term industrial technology mean?
5. How is scientific activity in 1970-s estimated?
6. When did science and technology begin to work together?
7. How can the history of mankind be described?
X. Make up sentences of your own with the following word combinations:
to change life; to alter the environment; to be closely related; to apply scientific knowledge; to create new opportunities; to satisfy needs and desires; to improve one’s life.
XI. Make up the plan of the text ‘Science and Technology’. Retell the text according to your plan.
XII. Translate into English in written form:
1. За последние годы наши взгляды на жизнь на Земле, на человека как личность, на Вселенную резко изменились.
2. Современная техника зависит от достижений в области чистой науки.
3. Техника дает науке более точные инструменты исследования.
4. Развитие науки делает возможным использование открытий для удовлетворения нужд и потребностей человека и улучшения его жизни.
5. На всем протяжении истории человечества люди изобретали инструменты, машины, материалы, технологии и изменяли окружающую среду.
6. Техника в более узком смысле означает промышленную технику, создавшую основу современного общества.
7. Современная техника началась с паровых машин, развития фабричной системы и массового производства товаров.
8. Научная революция, начавшаяся в XVI веке, вызвала появление новых идей, открытий и изобретений.
9. Только в XIX веке техника стала действительно основываться на работах ученых.
10. Первым действительно научно-техническим исследованием было исследование Фарадея.
11. История человеческого общества - это, в некотором смысле, история развития науки и техники.
Text B. THE TELEGRAPH
Benjamin Franklin, an American who is famous for his interesting and useful inventions, published his ideas about electricity in 1752. Scientists in many countries became interested in this wonderful form of energy. They wanted to find the answer to a very important question: Could electricity be used to develop a fast, efficient system of long-distance communication ?
Experiments proved that electricity could travel instantly over a very long piece of wire. But a note that was written on a piece of paper couldn't be put into a wire! How could electricity be used to send a message?
A Danish scientist discovered that electricity could move a needle from left to right, and that the needle could be pointed at letters on a piece of paper. Then a German government worker made up a code system that could be used with an electric needle. In 1837, two English scientists sent a message by electric telegraph from Camden Town to Euston, a distance of more than 1.6 kilometres.
In the United States, Samuel Morse, a portrait painter, was experimenting with an electric telegraph, too. At first, he connected a pencil to an electric wire. When the electricity came through the wire, the pencil made wavy lines. Then Morse invented a code that used dots and dashes for the letters of the alphabet. The pencil wrote the dots and dashes on a narrow piece of paper. Finally, he discovered that telegraph messages did not have to be written; they could be sent in sound.
At one end of the telegraph wire, the sender pressed a key. At the other end of the wire, another key went down and made a clicking sound. The telegraph operator used a short touch for a dot and a longer one for a dash. When the receiver heard the clicking sounds, he could figure out the message.
On May 24, 1844, the first long-distance message was sent by telegraph - from Washington, D.C., to Baltimore, Maryland - 64 kilometres!
Telegraph companies were formed in many cities. By 1861, telegraph wires stretched across the United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific. In Europe, too, Samuel Morse's system became popular.
But telegraph wirescouldn't be hung over an ocean. Messages to and from Europe had to be sent by ship — a journey of two or three weeks. A new method was needed.
The Atlantic Telegraph Company, which was organised in 1856 by Cyrus Field and other businessmen, wanted to try to lay a cable on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. England and the United States contributed money for this experiment.
Many attempts were made by ships from both countries. The 4000-kilometer cable broke three times. Each time, more money had to be raised, and a new cable had to be made. Finally, on July 27, 1866, the first transatlantic message was sent from Newfoundland to Ireland.
Later, cables were laid to Central and South America. After 1900, transpacific cables were laid to Asia and Australia. At last, news and business information could be sent instantly to almost every country in the world.
From "English for a Changing World"
I. Guess the meaning of the words given below:
distance, electricity, communication, telegraph, line, code, operator, experiment, press, popular, idea, form, energy, system, alphabet, company, ocean, method, organize, businessman, cable.
II. Translate the nouns with the suffix –er (-or) derived from the following verbs:
invent – изобретать inventor - ...
use – использовать user - ...
send – посылать sender - ...
write – писать writer - ...
receive – получать receiver - ...
develop – разрабатывать developer - ...
operate – работать operator - ...
work – работать worker - ...
paint – рисовать painter - ...
report – сообщать reporter - ...
III. Group the pairs of the words with the opposite meaning:
a) fast, useful, long, left, narrow, short, right, popular, slow, wavy, unknown, wide, straight, useless;
b) to find, to send, to go down, to rise, to receive, to lose.
IV. Learn the following terms:
wire – провод, проводник
message – сообщение
needle – стрелка, игла
dot – точка
dash – тире
sound – звук
key – ключ, клавиша
cable – кабель
V. Read the text ‘The Telegraph’. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian phrases:
очень важный вопрос; эффективная система связи на дальние расстояния; электрический проводник; узкая полоска бумаги; код, в котором применялись точки и тире; нажать ключ; записать сообщение; телеграфные провода протянулись от Атлантики до Тихого океана; проложить кабель по дну Атлантического океана; вкладывать деньги.
VI. Find in the text ‘The Telegraph’ sentences with the predicate in the Passive Voice. Translate them.
VII. Translate the text ‘The Telegraph’. Pay attention to the sentences in the Passive Voice.
VIII. Put ten questions on the text ‘The Telegraph’.
IX. Describe the principle of action of the telegraph made by S. Morse.
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