I.5.5. Времена группы Perfect Continuous.
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I.5.5. Времена группы Perfect Continuous.



The Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Настоящее совершенное длительное время описывает действие, которое длится в настоящем в течение определенного промежутка времени. Его указатели for (в течение, в продолжении), since (с тех пор, как). Данное время образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголовhave/has beenи смыслового глагола с окончанием -ing (Ving):I have been reading a book for 2 hours.

 

Упражнение 21. Проспрягайте выражение “to play football” во всех лицах в утвердительной, отрицательной и вопросительной форме в настоящем совершенном длительном времени. (см. Таблица 7)

The Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Прошедшее совершенное длительное время описывает действия, которые происходили в прошлом в течение определенного промежутка времени. Его указатель for (в течение, в продолжении). Данное время образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголовhad beenи смыслового глагола с окончанием -ing (Ving):She had been watching TV for 3 hours when her mother came home.

Упражнение 22. Проспрягайте выражение “to play football” во всех лицах в утвердительной, отрицательной и вопросительной форме в прошедшем совершенном длительном времени. (см. Таблица 7)

The Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Будущее совершенное длительное время описывает действия, которые будут происходить в будущем в течение определенного промежутка времени. Его указатель for (в течение, в продолжении). Данное время образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголовshall have beenи смыслового глагола с окончанием -ing (Ving):By the end of 2012 I shall have been studying here for 3 years.

Упражнение 23. Проспрягайте выражение “to play football” во всех лицах в утвердительной, отрицательной и вопросительной форме в будущем совершенном длительном времени. (см. Таблица 7)

 

Таблица 7. Времена группы Perfect Continuous

  Present Past Future
+ I Wehave been Ving You They   He She has been Ving It   I We You They had been He Ving She It     I shall have been We Ving   You They He will have been She It  
  For for for
- I We You have not beenThey Ving   He She has not been It Ving     I We You hadn’t been They Ving He She It   I shall not (shan`t) We have been You Ving They   He will not (won’t) She have been It Ving
? HaveI We been Ving? You They he Has she been Ving? it I we you Had theybeen he Ving? she it ShallI have been WeVing?   he she Willithave been youVing? they

 

Упражнение 24.

Раскройте скобки, употребляя глагол в нужной форме (Perfect Tenses, Perfect Continuous Tenses).

1. How long you (to prepare) for your report? – Oh, I (to work) since morning.

2. I (to walk) about an hour yesterday, when I (to see) a little house.

3. He (to finish) school by 2001.

4. She (to read) a book for two hours tomorrow.

5. (to have) they already (to come)?

Упражнение 25.

Выделите сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму.

1. We did not go on a trip last Sunday.

2. When I came home yesterday, mother had cooked dinner.

3. What was Mary doing all day yesterday?

4. By 6 o’clock yesterday she had been playing tennis for 3 hours.

5. Yesterday I met my friend whom I hadn’t seen for a long time.

 

Сводную таблицу времен английского глагола в действительном залоге см. Приложение 1

 

I.5.6. Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice)

Страдательный залог употребляется, когда действие совершается не самим предметом, а производится над предметом. Например, книгу читают. Времена страдательного залога образуются по формуле to be +V3,то есть смысловой глагол всегда стоит в третьей форме. Страдательный залог употребляется в следующих временах: Present Simple (The flowers are watered every day), Past Simple (The flowers were watered yesterday), Future Simple (The flowers will be watered tomorrow), Present Continuous (The flowers are being watered now), Past Continuous (The flowers were being watered from 5 to 6 yesterday), Present Perfect (The flowers have already been watered), Past Perfect (The flowers had been watered by 6 o’clock yesterday), Future Perfect (The flowers will have been watered by 9 o’clock tomorrow). Сводная таблица времен страдательного залога см. Приложение 2.

Упражнение 26.

Используйте эти предложения в пассивном залоге:

1. Professor Gray was introducing the candidates to the committee.

2. Mrs West is teaching our class this year.

3. They have organized a new exhibition in this building.

4. People laughed at him then.

5. Mr Brown washes cars every day.

 

I.6. Пять типов вопросов (5 Types of Questions).

I. Общий вопрос (General Question)

Общий вопрос – это вопрос, который задается ко всему предложению и требует ответа «да» или «нет». Порядок слов в общем вопросе:

1. Вспомогательный глагол, 2. Подлежащее, 3. Смысловой глагол, 4. Остальные члены предложения. Например: Do you like coffee?

II. Альтернативный вопрос (Alternative Question)

Альтернативный вопрос – это вопрос, в котором есть выбор (альтернатива) «или» - “or”. Порядок слов в альтернативном вопросе такой же, как и в общем, причем альтернативные члены нельзя разделять. Например: Do you like coffee or tea? Do you or they like coffee?

III. Специальный вопрос (Special question)

Специальный вопрос – это вопрос, который задается к одному из членов предложения и начинается с вопросительного слова. Вопросительные слова: what - что, какой; when - когда; why - почему; where - где, куда; how – как, how many – сколько, whose – чей. Порядок слов в специальном вопросе: 1. Вопросительное слово 2. Вспомогательный глагол 3. Подлежащее 4. Смысловой глагол 5. Остальные члены предложения за исключением того, к которому задается вопрос. Например: What do you like? Why do you like coffee?

IV. Вопрос к подлежащему (Question to Subject)

Вопрос к подлежащему является разновидностью специального вопроса. Особенностью его является отсутствие вспомогательного глагола в Present Simple и Past Simple. Данный вопрос начинается со вопросительного слова who – кто или what – что, за ним идее вспомогательный глагол, если это не Present Simple и Past Simple, затем смысловой глагол и остальные члены предложения. Причем, «who» и «what» всегда стоят в третьем лице единственного числа. Например: Who likes coffee? Who is crying in the yard?

V. Разделительный вопрос (Disjunctive Question)

На русский язык данный вопрос переводится «не так ли». Порядок слов в разделительном вопросе такой же, как и в повествовательном предложении, но в конце, после запятой, ставится вспомогательный глагол и местоимение, выражающее подлежащее. Причем, если в предложении есть отрицание, то вспомогательный глагол употребляется в утвердительной форме, а если отрицания нет, то в отрицательной. She likes coffee, doesn’t she?

Упражнение 27. Задайте 5 типов вопросов к предложению.

1. They will go to the seaside next summer.

2. She plays badminton well.

3. We went on a trip last Sunday.

4. They have been waiting for him for already half an hour.

 

II. Примерные устные темы для беседы с преподавателем.

About Myself.

Let me introduce myself. My name is Masha Ivanova. I am 18. I was born on the 20th of June in 1990. I live in Min-Vody. I am a secretary and I’m also a student. I study at MGEI. I want to become a psychologist (a lawyer, a guide).

I’ve got a family. It is not very large. I’ve got a mother, a father and a younger brother. My mother’s name is Svetlana Olegovna. She is a teacher of French. She is a very nice woman. My father, Alexander Sergeevich, is a doctor. He is fond of his profession. My younger brother, Misha, is still at school. He is a good pupil. His dream is to become a doctor, like his father.

I think we are a friendly family. We like to spend our free time together.

 

Hobbies.

Hobby is something that you like to do when you have free time. There are different kinds of hobbies. Sometimes they are divided into 4 groups: doing things, making things, learning things and collecting things. You can do different things: go in for sport, play musical instruments, work in the garden and what not. Making things includes: knitting, sewing, repairing. As for learning you can learn languages, poems, the names of trees and many other different things. Collecting – is a very popular hobby. People can collect coins and postcards, cars and houses.

As for me I don’t have a hobby. But when I have free time I like to watch TV or listen to music.

 

Seasons and Weather.

There are four seasons in a year: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Winter is the coldest season. It often snows in winter. Winter months are December, January and February. People celebrate New Year and Christmas in winter.

Spring comes in March. It is a very beautiful season. The grass and the trees are green; there are a lot of flowers. It is rather warm in April and May.

Summer is the hottest season. The sun shines brightly. People like to have their holidays in June, July and August.

It often rains in autumn. The leaves become red, orange and yellow and fall down from the trees. Autumn months are September, October and November.

As for me my favourite season is spring because my birthday is in spring.

Holidays

Holidays can be divided into family and public ones. Family holidays are celebrated inside a family. These are: birthdays of the members of a family, wedding anniversaries, memorial dates and so on. Public holidays are days off, days when people stay at home and don’t work. The main Russian public holidays are New Year’s Day, Christmas, the 23d of February, the 8th of March, the 1st of May, Victory Day and others.

New Year’s Day is celebrated on the 31st of December. It has a lot of traditions: New Year’s tree, Father Frost, fireworks, champagne and presents. Christmas is a church holiday. It is celebrated on the 7th of January. The 23d of February is a Men’s Day. On this day women congratulate their husbands, fathers and give them presents. The 8th of March is a Women’s day. Men give women flowers; show them their love and gratitude. In spring people also celebrate the 1st of May. This is the day of Spring and Labour. People like to have picnics and enjoy the beauty of the nature. One of the greatest holidays is Victory day. It is celebrated on the 9th of May to commemorate those who won the Great Patriotic war.

As for me my favourite holiday is New Year’s Day because it is mysterious and beautiful.

Sport.

Millions of people all over the world go in for sport. Some of them are professional sportsmen, some are amateur ones. Sports are divided into winter, summer and those played all the year round. Winter sports are skating, skiing, figure skating, sledging and others. Summer sports are sailing, water skiing, canoeing and others. You can play basketball, football, table tennis in any season in the gym.

Some people prefer to be sports fans. They enjoy watching sports on TV or go to different sport competitions.

As for me when I was a child I went in for gymnastics. It was really great. But now I just do some exercises to keep fit and watch sports on TV. I especially like to watch the Olympic Games.

 

Traditional Meals in Britain.

The usual meals in Britain are: breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner or supper. The usual English breakfast is porridge, bacon and eggs, marmalade and tea or coffee. People in Britain usually have lunch about one o’clock. They generally go to a café or a canteen. Sometimes they have a mutton chop or steak and chips, biscuits and cheese for lunch. Afternoon tea is hardly a meal but a sociable sort of thing because friends often meet for a chat while they have their cup of tea with cake or biscuit. In some houses dinner is the biggest meal of the day. And then they have simple supper.

As for our country we usually have breakfast, dinner or lunch and supper. Some people like to eat something just before going to bed. I often have coffee and sandwich for breakfast, soup and meat with potatoes and tea with a cake for dinner and pancakes with sour cream for supper.

 

Russia Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. It lies in the eastern part of Europe and the northern part of Asia. Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. The oceans are: the Arctic, the Atlantic, the Pacific. The seas are: the White Sea, the Barents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others.

There are forests and deserts, mountains and valleys, rivers and lakes in Russia. The main mountain chains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. The longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Ob, the Yenisei and the Lena in Asia. The largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal.

The Russian Federation is rich in natural and mineral resources. It has deposits of oil, gas, coal, iron, gold and many others.

The population of Russia is more than 150 million people.

The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow.

Russia is a presidential republic.

The United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Brain and Ireland. Their total area is over 244 000 square kilometres. The population of the UK is over 57 million.

The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast. The capital of the UK is London.

The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the North Sea, the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

There are a lot of rivers, lakes, mountains and hills in Great Britain. The longest river is the Severn, the deepest and the most important is the Thames. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343 m).

The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It produces machinery, electronics, textile.

The UK is a constitutional monarchy with a Parliament and the Queen as Head of State.

The United States of America

The Unites States of America are situated in the central part of the North American continent. Its western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean and its eastern coast - by the Atlantic Ocean.

The total area of the USA is over nine million square kilometres. The population of the USA is about 250 million people.

The USA is a very large country, so it has several different climatic regions. The coldest regions are in the north and north-east. The south has a subtropical climate.

The United States is a land of rivers and lakes. The longest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri and the Rio Grande. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada.

The United States is rich in natural and mineral resources. It produces copper, oil, iron ore and coal. It is a highly-developed industrial and agricultural country.

There are many big cities in the USA, such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and others. The national capital is Washington, D.C. Its population is about 3,4 million.









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