Лекции.ИНФО


Устав Общества с Ограниченной Ответственностью



«СиЭмСи Трейд»

 

Москва 2003 год

Статья 1. Создание Общества

1.1. Общество с ограниченной ответственностью «СиЭмСи ТРЕЙД» (далее – «Общество») создано в соответствии с Гражданским кодексом Российской Федерации, федеральным законом от 08.02.98 г. № 14-ФЗ "Об обществах с ограниченной ответственностью" и иными федеральными законами.

1.2. Положения федерального закона «Об обществах с ограниченной ответственностью» распространяются на общества с одним участником постольку, поскольку иное не предусмотрено указанным федеральным законом и поскольку это не противоречит существу рассматриваемых отношений.

Статья 2. Участники Общества

2.1. Учредителем Общества является частная / закрытая акционерная компания с ограниченной ответственностью "СиЭмСи", созданная по законодательству Англии с местом нахождения по адресу ____, зарегистрированная 24 апреля 1995 года в Торговом реестре ____, регистрационный номер 56640.

2.2. Число участников Общества не должно быть более пятидесяти. В (том) случае если число участников Общества превысит указанный предел, Общество в течение года должно преобразоваться в открытое акционерное общество или в производственный кооператив.

Статья 3. Цель создания и виды деятельности Общества

3.1. Основной целью создания Общества является осуществлениекоммерческой деятельности для извлечения прибыли.

3.2. Основными видами деятельности Общества являются: покупка и продажа продуктов питания для детей; любые виды деятельности, относящиеся к основной деятельности, включая среди прочего импорт товаров, упаковку товаров, хранение и транспортировку, маркетинг и рекламу товаров и услуг, консультирование.

Статья 4. Правовое положение Общества

4.1 Общество обладает правами юридического лица с момента его государственной регистрации и имеет круглую печать с указанием своего полного фирменного наименования на русском языке и его местонахождения.

4.2 Печать Общества содержит также фирменное наименование Общества на английском языке.

Общество вправе иметь штампы и бланки со своим фирменным наименованием, собственную эмблему, а также зарегистрированный в установленном порядке товарный знак и другие средства индивидуализации.

4.3 Общество имеет право осуществлять любые виды деятельности, не запрещенные действующим законодательством Российской Федерации, включая виды деятельности, предусмотренные ст. 4 настоящего Устава, и при этом Общество несет гражданско-правовую ответственность за свои действия.

Статья 5. Филиалы и представительства Общества

5.1 Общество может создавать филиалы и открывать представительства с соблюдением действующего законодательства Российской Федерации, а за пределами территории Российской Федерации также в соответствии с законодательством иностранного государства, на территории которого создаются филиалы или открываются представительства, если иное не предусмотрено международными договорами Российской Федерации.

 

TEXT 50

 

Strasbourg, 7 December 2007 Public Greco Eval III Rep (2007) 2E

Theme II. Third Evaluation Round / Evaluation Report on Finland on Transparency of Party Funding

(Theme II) Adopted by GRECO at its 35th Plenary Meeting (Strasbourg, 3-7 December 2007)

 

Theme II – Transparency of party funding: Articles 11, 12, 13b, 14 and 16 of Recommendation Rec(2003)4 on Common Rules against Corruption in the Funding of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns, and – more generally – Guiding Principle 15 (financing of political parties and election campaigns).

 

II. TRANSPARENCY OF PARTY FUNDING - GENERAL PART

 

Definitions

In Finland, political parties have existed for over a century; they were legally recognized in the 1969 Act on Political Parties, which gave them a privileged status in elections and in the allocation of public funds.

A political party is defined as a registered association recorded in the Party Register; it has a non-profitable character and its main purpose is to influence state matters (Sections 1 and 2, Act on Political Parties).

Political parties acquire legal personality following their registration as an association in the Register of Associations. They may obtain rights, make commitments and appear as a party before courts and in relation to other authorities. In principle, the members of a registered association are not personally liable for the association‘s obligations (Section 6, Association Act). However, pursuant to Section 39 of the Association Act, a member of the executive board, as well as the agent of the association is liable for any intentional or negligent damage that s/he may have caused to the association, a member of the association or a third-party when such damage was caused by an act against the Association Act or the internal rules of the association.

 

Registration of political parties

The registration of political parties in the Party Register is the responsibility of the Ministry of Justice. A political party seeking registration has to fulfil several conditions: (1) demonstrate that its main objective is to influence state matters; (2) show signed support cards from at least 5,000 eligible voters; (3) its internal rules are to guarantee that democratic principles are abided by in its decision-making and activities; and (4) it must have a draft party programme, including goals and principles for future action (Section 2, Act on Political Parties).

The Party Register contains the following information: an extract from the Register of Associations (including inter alia: name, registration number and domicile of the association; full name, address, residence of the chairperson and any person authorized to sign for the association), a certified copy of the internal rules and regulations of the association, the party programme and a list of citizens supporting the party (Section 3, Act on Political Parties). The information contained in the Party Register is publicly accessible in accordance with the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999).

Changes in party rules and political programmes are not enforced before their formal acceptance and registration in the Party Register. A political party, which fails to gain seats in two consecutive parliamentary elections is de-registered, but may apply anew. A political party may also apply for its deletion from the Party Register.

Only the central organization of a party is registered in the Party Register; party branches, municipal organizations, and sub-national organizations are registered in the Register of Associations, which is held by the National Board of Patents and Registration, which is under the authority of the Ministry of Trade and Industry.

At present, there are 11 registered political parties in Finland: The Finnish Social Democratic Party, Centre Party of Finland, National Coalition Party, Swedish People's Party in Finland, Christian Democrats in Finland, Green League, Left-Wing Alliance, True Finns, Communist Party of Finland, Party for Senior Citizens, and For Peace and Socialism.

 

Party representation in Parliament

Finland has a unicameral Parliament with 200 seats. Following the 2007 parliamentary elections, 8 out of the total number of registered parties are represented in Parliament as follows4: Centre Party (KESK) – 51 seats, National Coalition Party (KOK) – 50 seats, Finnish Social Democratic Party (SDP) – 45 seats, Left-Wing Alliance (VAS) – 17 seats, Green League (VIHR) – 15 seats, Swedish People‘s Party in Finland (SFP) – 9 seats, Christian Democrats in Finland (KD) – 7 seats, True Finns (PS) – 5 seats

In addition, one seat in Parliament is always held by a representative from the Åland Islands (Section 25 of the Constitution).

 

Participation in elections

The right to candidacy is granted to eligible voters, except for individuals under guardianship and professional soldiers. The positions of the Chancellor of Justice, the Parliamentary Ombudsman, the judges of the Supreme Court or Supreme Administrative Court, and the Prosecutor General are incompatible with candidacy.

According to the Constitution (731/1999), candidates may be nominated by (a) political parties entered in the Party Register; and (b) “constituency associations“. For parliamentary (national and European) and presidential elections, candidates are almost invariably nominated by a political party, with the sole exception of the province of Åland where candidates are always nominated by constituency associations. For municipal elections, constituency associations continue to play a role.

In parliamentary elections, a party or constituency association is to submit its list of candidates (candidate application) to the District Election Committee (DEC) of the area where the candidates are to be nominated no later than 40 days before the day of the elections. The same deadline applies to notices of electoral alliances or joint lists. The relevant DEC checks whether the list of candidates fulfils the legal requirements, in particular those referred to eligibility, and confirms the nomination of candidates no later than 31 days before the day of the elections. Additionally, DECs compile combined lists of candidates including data concerning name, municipality of residence and title, profession or position. The combined lists of candidates are displayed in the polling booths.

Elections are direct, secret and proportional (d‘Hondt system). Electoral lists are open (the election of candidates from the party list is not predetermined, but depends entirely on the number of individual votes cast for each candidate), and electors cast a ballot for a particular candidate in a list rather than for a party. As a result, the Finnish system is strongly candidate centred.

There is no election threshold. However, as many electoral districts have lost population in recent decades, some now elect as few as six representatives, which in turn creates a “hidden election threshold“ in those districts, favouring major parties. Moreover, as the d'Hondt formula of allocating seats favours large parties, small parties may form electoral alliances and constituency associations may form joint lists to accrue their chances of being elected.

The Ministry of Justice acts as the supreme electoral authority. At local level it is supported by 15 District Election Committees and 416 Municipal Election Committees.

 

 

TEXT 51

 









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