MAIN BRANCHES OF ENGINEERING
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MAIN BRANCHES OF ENGINEERING



Engineering, much like other science, is a broad discipline which is often divided into several sub-disciplines. These disciplines concern themselves with differing areas of engineering work. Although initially an engineer will usually be trained in a specific discipline, throughout an engineer's career the engineer may become multi-disciplined, having worked in several of the outlined areas. Engineering is often characterized as having four main branches:

Chemical engineering – The exploitation of chemical principles in order to carry out large scale chemical process, as well as designing new specialty materials and fuels.

Civil engineering – The design and construction of public and private works, such as infrastructure (roads, railways, water supply and treatment etc.), bridges and buildings.

Electrical engineering – a very broad area that may encompass the design and study of various electrical and electronic systems, such as electrical circuits, generators, motors, electromagnetic/electromechanical devices, electronic devices, electronic circuits, optical fibers, optoelectronic devices, computer systems, telecommunications and electronics.

Mechanical engineering – The design of physical or mechanical systems, such as power and energy systems, aerospace/aircraft products, weapon systems, transportation products engines, compressors, kinematic chains, vacuum technology, and vibration isolation equipment.

Historically, naval engineering and mining engineering were major branches. New specialties sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches.

In Political science the term engineering has been borrowed for the study of the subjects of Social engineering and Political engineering, which deal with forming political and social structures using engineering methodology coupled with political science principles. Financial engineering has similarly borrowed the term.

 

Раздел 1. Чтение

 

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст письменно.

Задание 2. Найдите эквиваленты для данных слов.

1. science 2. discipline 3. specific 4. scale 5. to characterize 6. device 7. to combine 8. to borrow 9. to study 10. major a. специфический, конкретный b. соединять, комбинировать c. характеризовать d. заимствовать e. изучать f. главный, основной g. прибор h. наука i. масштаб j. дисциплина

Задание 3. Заполните пропуски подходящими словами.

 

career, concern, engineering, designing, major

 

1. These disciplines . . . themselves with differing areas of engineering work.

2. Throughout an engineer's . . . the engineer may become multi-disciplined.

3. Chemical engineering deals with . . . new specialty materials and fuels.

4. Naval engineering and mining engineering were . . . branches.

5. Financial . . . has borrowed the term.

 

Задание 4. Заполните пропуски словами из второй колонки, преобразовав их лексически и грамматически.

 

ПРИМЕР:Engineering, much like other sciences, is a broad discipline. engineer
1) Engineering is often . . . into several sub-disciplines. division
2) Chemical engineering deals with designing new . . . materials and fuels. special
3) Civil engineering is the design and construction of infrastructure, bridges and . . . . build
4) New specialties sometimes combine with the . . . fields. tradition
4) Social engineering and Political engineering, which deal with . . . political and social structures using engineering methodology. form

 

Задание 5. Составьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.

Раздел 2. Грамматика

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрывая скобки, ставя глаголы в нужную временную форму Present Perfect или Past Perfect.

 

1. Britain’s nuclear scientists (to make) progress in harnessing atomic energy.

2. The Roman roads in London (to vanish) in the confusion of the centuries after the Romans (to Leave).

3. Horatio Nelson (to die) on board of his flagship “The Victory”, but before he was told that he (to win) the battle.

4. Cleopatra’s Needle, the monument whish (to lie) for centuries in the sand, (to be presented) to the British nation.

5. Michael Faraday’s discoveries (to give) rise to the electrical industry.

Задание 2. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу предлоги.

 

1. These disciplines concern themselves . . . differing areas . . . engineering work.

2. Engineer can work . . . several areas.

3. New specialties sometimes combine . . . the traditional fields and form new branches.

4. Leonardo Da Vinci is an example of the connection . . . art and engineering.

5. Social engineering and Political engineering use engineering methodology coupled . . . political science principles.

 

Задание 3. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения some, any, no или производные от них.

 

1. Do you like . . . of these design projects?

2. . . . engineers are trained in several fields.

3. . . . knew that the construction was going on.

4. . . . left these papers on my table yesterday.

5. Does . . . have experience in infrastructure design?

 

Раздел 3. Устная речь

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы (на английском языке).

 

1) Engineering is a broad discipline, isn’t it?

2) What can you say about an engineer’s training?

3) What are the main branches of engineering?

4) What branches were major ones before?

5) How are Social and Political science connected with engineering?

 

Задание 2. Подготовьте сообщение на тему “Choosing career in engineering” (15-20 предложений).

ВАРИАНТ 3

Текст

FAMOUS LONDON ARCHITECT

Before the Great Fire there were 108 churches in the City, but only 20 survived the flames. It was decided to rebuild 51, and this monumental task was given to Sir Christopher Wren (1632 - 1723).

Wren’s masterpiece was St Paul’s Cathedral, but each church was designed with the same care so that no two were alike.

During the Second World War nearly all Wren’s churches were destroyed or damaged. Most were reconstructed, and of the 39 churches in the City, 23 are by Wren.

Inigo Jones (1573-1652) transformed English architecture and introduced a Classical style whose influence was to last for nearly 300 years. In 1617 he was began to build the Queen’s House at Greenwich, and in 1619 was invited by James I to build the Banqueting House for Whitehall Palace.

Jones was also responsible for Covent Garden, which originally took its name from the convent that stood on the site in the Middle Ages. Here Jones based his design on the style of an Italian piazza and created London's first real square. The Garden flourished in the 17th century as the residential area of the rich. It was King Charles' II favourite haunt, a place of entertainment of all sorts.

In the 18th and 19th centuries Covent Garden became known for its fruit and vegetable markets.

In 1974 the market was moved to a new site in Nine Elms, and Covent Garden has become a tourist attraction with continental-style restaurants, bars and clubs.

Another of London's great builders is John Nash (1752—1835). He enlarged Buckingham Palace and gave it a grand archway, called the Marble Arch, which was moved in 1851 to Hyde Park, where it still stands.

Today Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Royal Family. The Flying of the Royal Standard on the palace proclaims that the Queen is in Residence. The Changing of the Guard is a very popular tourist attraction.

Раздел 1. Чтение

 

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст письменно.

Задание 2. Найдите эквиваленты для данных слов.

1. to survive 2. to be reconstructed 3. to create 4. a place of entertainment 5. to base 6. masterpiece 7. to enlarge 8. to be responsible 9. to become known 10. continental style a. шедевр b. увеличить, расширить c. быть ответственным d. стать известным e. создать f. быть реконструированным g. место развлечений h. выжить i. континентальный стиль j. основывать

Задание 3. Заполните пропуски подходящими словами.

 

destroyed, design, survived, transformed, builders

 

1. Only 20 churches . . . the Great Fire.

2. During the Second World War nearly all Wren’s churches were . . . or damaged.

3. Inigo Jones . . . English architecture.

4. Here Jones based his . . . on the style of an Italian piazza.

5. Another of London's great . . . is John Nash.

 

Задание 4. Заполните пропуски словами из второй колонки, преобразовав их лексически и грамматически.

 

ПРИМЕР: It was decided to rebuild 51 churches. decision
1) Many churches were . . . after the war. reconstruction
2) Jones was also . . . for Covent Garden. responsibility
3) The Garden was King Charles' II favourite haunt, a place of . . . of all sorts. entertain
4) John Nash . . . Buckingham Palace. enlargement
5) The Changing of the Guard is a very popular tourist . . . . attract

 

Задание 5. Составьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.

 

Раздел 2. Грамматика

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрывая скобки, ставя глаголы в нужную временную форму Future Simple или Future Continuous.

 

1. This architect (to rebuild) the trade centre next year.

2. Tomorrow at the meeting they (to decide) whom to give the task to.

3. At 10 o’clock tomorrow the manager (to go) to the building site.

4. Our project managers (to work) at a new design project at the same time in two weeks.

5. A new city park (to be) popular among citizens.

Задание 2. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу предлоги.

 

1. This monumental task was given . . . Sir Christopher Wren.

2. Inigo Jones began to build the Queen’s House at Greenwich . . . 1617.

3. The Garden flourished as the residential area . . . the rich.

4. In 1974 the market was moved . . . a new site in Nine Elms.

5. The Flying of the Royal Standard . . . the palace proclaims that the Queen is in Residence.

 

Задание 3. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты.

 

will have to, could, must, may, can

 

1. Yesterday he . . . visit the construction site, but today he is very busy.

2. . . . our engineer have a look at the calculations? – Yes, of course.

3. I … finish this report today, because tomorrow I will go to our office in Moscow.

4. The day after tomorrow she … … show the final variant of the project.

5. The designer . . . create real masterpieces.

 

Раздел 3. Устная речь

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы (на английском языке).

 

1) Who are the famous London architects?

2) Were all Wren’s churches alike?

3) When was Covent Garden built?

4) Was enlarged by Inigo Jones or John Nash?

5) What is Buckingham Palace today?

 

Задание 2. Подготовьте сообщение на тему “Famous London architects and their works” (15-20 предложений).

ВАРИАНТ 4

Текст

FAMOUS LONDON ARCHITECTS

When Queen Victoria came to the throne, a new era brought the first major change in architectural styles since the days of Inigo Jones.

When the railways came to London the Victorians built railway stations. They were so magnificent, that they looked like palaces. Among the most beautiful ones are Euston Station, King's Cross Station and St Pancras.

The Victorian Gothic style dominated in London's buildings until the end of the century, and can still be seen in many civil, public and commercial buildings. One of its strongest supporters was Prince Albert, and after his death in 1861 a memorial to him was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott. A bronze statue to the prince looks across Kensington, the borough that he made into London's centre for the arts and sciences. Prince Albert's other London monument is the Royal Albert Hall, opposite the memorial, which was opened in 1871.

The trend in architecture during the first 20 years of the 20th century was largely a continuation of the Victorian style.

After the Second World War London, and particularly the City, underwent its biggest redevelopment since the Great Fire. There arose concrete and glass skyscraper blocks, towering above St Paul's Cathedral. London had reached its acceptable boundaries, and building land was very expensive. So commercial buildings reached for the sky, matched by high-rise blocks of flats in the East End. In 1969 the Post Office Tower at 580 ft was the tallest building in Britain. It has a familiar name — "pie in the sky", and a restaurant revolves at the top.

The latest contender for the title of London's tallest building is the 600 ft National Westminster Bank building in Bishopsgate.

The face of London changes, as it must if the capital is to remain alive. But its past is still there for all to see — in streets and buildings that portray almost 2000 years of history.

 

Раздел 1. Чтение

 

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст письменно.

Задание 2. Найдите эквиваленты для данных слов.

1. a major change 2. architectural style 3. to be magnificent 4. to dominate in something 5. to be designed 6. a trend in architecture 7. to be a continuation of something 8. building land 9. to reach for something 10. to remain alive a. доминировать в чем-либо b. направление в архитектуре c. земля под строительство d. быть великолепным e. достигать чего-либо f. оставаться живым g. быть продолжением чего-либо h. важная перемена i. быть спроектированным j. архитектурный стиль

Задание 3. Заполните пропуски подходящими словами.

 

revolving, architectural, magnificent, history, dominated

 

1. A new era brought the first major change in . . . styles.

2. They were so . . . , that they looked like palaces.

3. The Victorian Gothic style . . . in London until the end of the century.

4. The Post Office Tower has a . . . restaurant at the top.

5. London streets and buildings portray almost 2000 years of . . . .

 

Задание 4. Заполните пропуски словами из второй колонки, преобразовав их лексически и грамматически.

 

ПРИМЕР: The Victorians built railway stations. building
1) Among the most . . . stations are Euston Station and St Pancras. beauty
2) One of its strongest . . . was Prince Albert. support
3) The trend in architecture at the beginning of the 20th century was a . . . of the Victorian style. continue
4) After the Second World War London underwent its biggest . . . since the Great Fire. develop
5) A restaurant . . . at the top of the Post Office Tower revolving

 

Задание 5. Составьте к тексту пять вопросов разных типов.

 

Раздел 2. Грамматика

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрывая скобки, ставя глаголы в нужную временную форму Future Simple или Future Continuous.

 

1. This business centre (to be) the tallest in our town.

2. I (to work) at my book all the day tomorrow.

3. A famous architect (to design) this new district of the town.

4. The engineers promises that the construction (to be finished) in time.

5. On Monday at 12 o’clock they (to discuss) this very question.

Задание 2. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу предлоги.

 

1. The Victorian Gothic style can still be seen . . . many buildings.

2. . . . Prince Albert’s death a memorial to him was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott.

3. The latest contender . . . the title of London's tallest building is the National Westminster Bank building in Bishopsgate.

4. Commercial buildings were matched . . . high-rise blocks of flats in the East End.

5. A bronze statue . . . the prince looks across Kensington.

 

Задание 3. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты.

 

may, will have to, must, could, can

 

1. I . . . go to the construction manager tomorrow.

2. You . . . visit a new office if you have time.

3. Richard wants to know if he . . . take the magazine for some time.

4. She . . . check everything before the conference starts.

5. Last month they had a vacation and . . . have a rest in countryside very often.

 

Раздел 3. Устная речь

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы (на английском языке).

 

1) When did a change in architectural styles in London begin?

2) What are the most beautiful railway stations in London?

3) What are the monuments to Prince Albert?

4) What kind of redevelopment did London undergo after the Second World War?

5) Can we see London past in its streets and buildings?

 

Задание 2. Подготовьте сообщение на тему “Changes in London architecture in the 19th – 20th centuries” (15-20 предложений).

 

ЧАСТЬ 3. КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА

ДЛЯ СУДЕНТОВ 2 КУРСА МФПИТ

КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА № 3

ВАРИАНТ 1

 

Текст

COMPUTERS AND THE INTERNET

Computer is an electronic device that can receive a program (a set of instructions) and then carry out this program by calculating numerical information.

The modern world of high technology is possible mainly due to the development of the computer. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing by means of automation, and they have enhanced modern communication systems.

Personal computers are also called microcomputers or home computer. The most compact are called laptops. They are portable and work on built-in batteries.

Personal computers are designed for use at homes, schools, and offices. At home they can be used for home management (balancing the family finances, for example) and for playing computer games, watching films or listening to music. Schoolchildren can use computers for doing their homework and many schools now have computers for independent learning and computer-literacy studies. In the office personal computers may be used for word processing, bookkeeping, storage and handling of necessary information.

The Internet and its technology continue to have a profound effect in promoting the exchange of information, making possible rapid transactions among businesses, and supporting global collaboration among individuals and organizations. More than 100 million computers are connected via the global Internet in 2000, and even more are attached to enterprise internets. The development of the World Wide Web leads to the rapid introduction of new business tools and activities that may lead to annual business transactions on the Internet worth hundreds of billions of dollars.

 

Раздел 1. Чтение

 

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст письменно.

Задание 2. Найдите эквиваленты для данных слов.

1. word processing 2. possible 3. exchange 4. rapid 5. transaction 6. device 7. manufacturing 8. storage 9. computer-literacy 10. development a.компьютерная грамотность b.быстрый c.сделка d.производство e.хранение f. устройство g.возможный h. электронная обработка текста i.развитие j. обмен

Задание 3. Заполните пропуски подходящими словами.

 

сonnected, era, development, personal, home

 

1. Computers have opened up a new … in manufacturing.

2. More than 100 million computers are … via the global Internet in 2000.

3. The … of the World Wide Web leads to the rapid introduction of new business tools and activities.

4. Personal computers are also called microcomputers or … computer.

5. … computers are designed for use at homes.

 

Задание 4. Заполните пропуски словами из второй колонки, преобразовав их лексически и грамматически.

 

ПРИМЕР: The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks interconnection
1) Internet is a short … of the technical term internetwork formula
2) File sharing is an example of … large amounts of data across the Internet. transfer
3) The Web has also enabled individuals and organizations to … ideas and information to a potentially large audience online. publication
4) The Internet allows computer users to remotely … other computers and information stores easily. Assessment
5) The Internet is allowing greater … in working hours and location. flexible

 

Задание 5. Составьте пять вопросов разных типов к тексту.

 

Раздел 2. Грамматика

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрывая скобки, ставя глаголы в нужную временную форму Present Perfect or Past Perfect.

 

1. Computers … (open) up a new era in manufacturing.

2. There was no Internet, before the computers (appear).

3. I just (send) e-mail.

4. He (hear) the news before I began to read the letter.

5. Anybody (take) my laptop?

 

Задание 2. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения some, any, no или производные от них.

 

1. These documents may also contain … combination of computer data.

2. The Internet has … centralized governance.

3. … psychologists believe that Internet use has other effects on individuals for instance interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity.

4. Do you know … IT engineer who can help me?

5. There are … problems with the program.

 

Задание 3. Вставьте необходимые предлоги.

 

1. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing … means of automation.

2. They are portable and work … built-in batteries.

3. Personal computers are designed … use at homes.

4. The Internet and its technology continue to have a profound effect … promoting the exchange of information.

5. More than 100 million computers are connected … the global Internet in 2000.

 

Раздел 3. Устная речь

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы (на английском языке).

 

1. What is the Internet?

2. What is a computer?

3. Is computerization helpful for engineering?

4. How can the computers help in independent learning?

5. What does the word laptop mean?

 

Задание 2. Подготовьте сообщение на тему “Computer is a part of the engineer’s work” (15-20 предложений).

 

ВАРИАНТ 2

 

Текст

COMPUTERS AND THE INTERNET

Computer is an electronic device that can receive a program (a set of instructions) and then carry out this program by calculating numerical information.

The modern world of high technology is possible mainly due to the development of the computer. Computers have opened up a new era in manufacturing by means of automation, and they have enhanced modern communication systems.

Personal computers are also called microcomputers or home computer. The most compact are called laptops. They are portable and work on built-in batteries.

Personal computers are designed for use at homes, schools, and offices. At home they can be used for home management (balancing the family finances, for example) and for playing computer games, watching films or listening to music. Schoolchildren can use computers for doing their homework and many schools now have computers for independent learning and computer-literacy studies. In the office personal computers may be used for word processing, bookkeeping, storage and handling of necessary information.

The Internet and its technology continue to have a profound effect in promoting the exchange of information, making possible rapid transactions among businesses, and supporting global collaboration among individuals and organizations. More than 100 million computers are connected via the global Internet in 2000, and even more are attached to enterprise internets. The development of the World Wide Web leads to the rapid introduction of new business tools and activities that may lead to annual business transactions on the Internet worth hundreds of billions of dollars.

 

Раздел 1. Чтение

 

Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст письменно.

Задание 2. Найдите эквиваленты для данных слов.

1. laptop 2. portable 3. exchange 4. built-in 5. transaction 6. device 7. instruction 8. storage 9. computer-literacy 10. word processing a.компьютерная грамотность b.встроенный c.инструкция d.ноутбук e.хранение f.устройство g.портативный h.электронная обработка текста i.развитие j. обмен

 

Задание 3. Заполните пропуски подходящими словами.

 

communication systems, designed, built-in, microcomputers, enterprise

 

1. Personal computers are … for use at homes, schools, and offices.

2. Computers have enhanced modern ….

3. They are portable and work on … batteries

4. Personal computers are also called … or home computer.

5. More than 100 million computers are attached to … internets.

 

Задание 4. Заполните пропуски словами из второй колонки, преобразовав их лексически и грамматически.

 

ПРИМЕР: The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks interconnection
1) Personal computers are … for use at homes, schools, and offices. design
2) Many schools now have computers for … learning and computer-literacy studies. independence
3) More than 100 million computers are … via the global Internet in 2000 connection
4) The modern world of high technology is … mainly due to the development of the computer. possibility
5) The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in … hours and location. work

 

Задание 5. Составьте пять вопросов разных типов к тексту.

 

Раздел 2. Грамматика

Задание 1. Перепишите предложения, раскрывая скобки, ставя глаголы в нужную временную форму Present Perfect or Past Perfect.

 

1. Computers (enhance) modern communication systems.

2. There were no computer games, before the computers (appear).

3. I just (create) my web-site.

4. We (buy) electronic tickets before the ticket window opened.

5. I just (write) e-mail.

 

Задание 2. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу местоимения some, any, no или производные от них.

 

1. These documents may also contain … graphics.

2. Nowadays … can live without computer.

3. I have … ideas about creating a new web-site.

4. Does … know where my laptop is?

5. … has gone wrong with the program.

 

Задание 3. Вставьте необходимые предлоги.

 

1. Computers carry out different programs … calculating numerical information.

2. The development of the World Wide Web leads … the rapid introduction of new business tools and activities.

3. Personal computers can be used … home management.

4. The Internet and its technology continue to have a profound effect … promoting the exchange of information.

5. The development of the World Wide Web may lead to annual business transactions … the Internet worth hundreds of billions of dollars.

 

Раздел 3. Устная речь

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы (на английском языке).

1. What is WWW?

2. What is a laptop?

3. Is computerization helpful for modern economy?

4. How can the computers help in learning?

5. What does the word microcomputer mean?

 

Задание 2. Подготовьте сообщение на тему “Computer in my life” (15-20 предложений).

 

ВАРИАНТ 3

 

Текст









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