Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1
Лекции.ИНФО


Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1



calculating device [ksllcjiK'leitin di'vais] — вычислительное

устройство

multiple ['nultiplj — кратный

abacus ['aebakss] — счеты

slide rule ['slaid 'nil] — логарифмическая линейка

logarithm table ['Ьдэпбт 'teibl] — логарифмическая таб­лица

calculus pkaelkjidas] — исчисление; математический ана­лиз

general-purpose ['4зепэгэ1 'p3:pas] — общего назначения, универсальный

to cut out the human being altogether — полностью исклю­чить человека

to manipulate [ms'nipjuleit] — обрабатывать, преобразо­вывать; управлять

data processing ['deits pre'sesin] — обработка данных (ин­формации)

tabulate the census — занести данные по переписи (на­селения) в таблицу

means of coding ['mi:nz sv 'koudin] — средства кодиро­вания (шифровки)

to punch the holes ['pAntf 5э 'houlz] — пробивать отвер­стия

punched card ['рлШ(1 'kaid] — перфокарта

to perform [рэТэ:т] — выполнять, производить (дей­ствие); осуществлять;

unit of data ['jitnit sv 'deita] — единица информации keyboard terminals — терминал (вывод) с клавишным управлением


31 Unit 3. History of Computers

proliferation [pr3,hf3'reijh] — размножение, быстрое уве­личение

2. Прочтите текст и скажите, о каких первых вычисли­тельных приборах рассказывается в нем.

Text У. THE FIRST CALCULATING DEVICES

Let us take a look at the history of computers that we know today. The very first calculating device used was the ten fingers of a man's hands. This, in fact, is why today we still count in tens and multiples of tens.

Then the abacus was invented. People went on using some form of abacus well into the 16th century, and it is still being used in some parts of the world because it can be understood with­out knowing how to read.

During the 17th and I8lh centuries many people tried to find easy ways of calculating. J.Napier, a Scotsman, invented a me­chanical way of multiplying and dividing, which is now the modern slide rale works. Henry Briggs used Napier's ideas to • produce logarithm tables which all mathematicians use today.

Calculus, another branch of mathematics, was independently invented by both Sir Isaak Newton, an Englishman, and Leib­nitz, a German mathematician. The first real calculating ma­chine appeared in 1820 as the result of several people's experi­ments.

In 1830 Charles Babbage, a gifted English mathematician, proposed to build a general-purpose problem-solving machine that he called "the analytical engine". This machine, which Babbage showed at the Paris Exhibition in 1855, was an attempt to cut out the human being altogether, except for providing the machine with the necessary facts about the problem to be solved. He never finished this work, but many of his ideas were the ba­sis for building today's computers.

By the early part of the twentieth century electromechani­cal machines had been developed and were used for business data processing. Dr. Herman Hollerith, a young statistician from the US Census Bureau successfully tabulated the 1890 census. Hollerith invented a means of coding the data by punching holes into cards. He built one machine to punch the holes and others — to tabulate the collected data. Later Hollerith left the Census


 


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 32

Bureau and established his own tabulating machine company. Through a series of merges the company eventually became the IBM Corporation.

Until the middle of the twentieth century machines designed to manipulate punched card data were widely used for business data processing. These early electromechanical data processors were called unit record machines because each punched card contained a unit of data.

In the mid—1940s electronic computers were developed to perform calculations for military and scientific purposes. By the end of the 1960s commercial models of these computers were widely used for both scientific computation and business data processing. Initially these computers accepted their input data from punched cards. By the late 1970s punched cards had been almost universally replaced by keyboard terminals. Since that . time advances in science have led to the proliferation of com­puters throughout our society, and the past is but the prologue that gives us a glimpse of the nature.

3. Просмотрите текст еще раз. Ответьте на вопросы, ис­пользуя информацию текста.

1.What was the very first calculating device? 2. What is the abacus? 3. What is the modern slide rule? 4. Who gave the ideas for producing logarithm tables? 5. How did Newton and Leib­nitz contribute to the problem of calculation? 6. When did the first calculating machine appear? 7. What was the main idea of . Ch.Babbage's machine? 8. How did electromechanical ma­chines appear and what were they used for? 9. What means of


33 Unit 3. History of Computers

coding the data did Hollerith devise? 10. How were those elec­tromechanical machines called and why? 11. What kind of com­puters appeared later? 12. What new had the computers of 1970s?

4. Найдите в тексте английские эквивалентыследующих
словосочетаний:

Вычислительное устройство; легкий способ вычисления; поэтому (вот почему); кратное десяти; изобрести механи­ческий способ умножения и деления; логарифмическая линейка; составить таблицы логарифмов; математический анализ; изобрести независимо (друг от друга); в результа­те; полностью исключить человека; кроме (за исключени­ем); обработка деловой информации; средство кодирова­ния информации; перфокарты; пробивать отверстия; оформить собранные данные в таблицу; работать с данны­ми на перфокарте; устройство, записывающее информа­цию блоками; единица информации; выполнять вычисле­ния; для научных целей; клавишный терминал

5. Вспомните значение следующих глаголов и подберите к
ним производные. Например: to calculate — calculating,
calculator, calculation.

To compute, to invent, to know, to multiply, to divide, to depend, to solve, to provide, to process, to code, to punch, to collect, to design, to store, to contribute, to use, to manipulate, to assemble, to connect, to consume, to rely, to divide, to mul­tiply, to inform, to instruct, to discover, to operate.

6. Переведите словосочетания,содержащие:

А. Причастие I— Participle I

Computers using vacuum tubes; the machine calculating mathematical problems; the computer keeping instructions in its memory; binary code storing data and instructions; the vac­uum tube controlling and amplifying -electronic signals; com­puters performing computations in milliseconds; electronic . pulses moving at the speed of light; students coding the infor­mation by using a binary code; devices printing the information; keyboard terminals replacing vacuum tubes.


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 34

Б. Причастие II— Participle II

The given information; the name given to the machine; the coded data; the device used in World War II; the invention named ENIAC; the machine called EDVAC; instructions kept in the memory; the engine designed for storing data; data stored in a binary code; vacuum tubes invented by J. Neumann; the general-purpose machine proposed by Ch. Babbage; the ma­chine provided with the necessary facts.

7. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 2.

analog computer [э'па?1эд kam'pjuta] — аналоговый ком­пьютер

digital computer [fdid3rt3l kam'pjata] — цифровой компь­ютер

to aim guns ['eim 'длпг] — наводить орудия на цель

to figure out ['пдэг aut] — вычислять

at a fast rate [at э 'fa:st 'reit] — с высокой скоростью

memory / storage ['тетэп /'stond3] — запоминающее ус­тройство

to store data and instructions — запоминать информацию и команды

stored program computer — компьютер с занесенной в память программой

binary code ['Ьатэп 'koud] — двоичный код condition [kan'difn] — режим, состояние, условие

vacuum tube ['vsekjuam tju:b] — электронная (вакуумная) трубка (лампа)

to amplify ['asmphfai] — усиливать

to perform computations [рэТэ:т ksmpju'teijh] — выпол­нять вычисления

8, Прочтите текст 2 и скажите, что вы узнали о первых циф­
ровых и аналоговых компьютерах. Переведите текст.

Text 2. THE FIRST COMPUTERS

In 1930 the first analog computer was built by American named Vannevar Bush. This device was used in Wbrld W&r II to help aim guns.


35 Unit 3. History of Computers

Many technical developments of electronic digital comput­ers took place in the 1940s and 1950s. Mark I, the name given to the first digital computer, was completed in 1944. The man responsible for this invention was Professor Howard Aiken. This was the first machine that could figure out long lists of mathe­matical problems at a very fast rate.

In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsilvania, J.Eckert and J.Maushly, built their digital computer with vacu­um tubes. They named their new invention ENIAC (the Elec­tronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator).

Another important achievement in developing computers came in 1947, when John von Neumann developed the idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the computer's memory. The contribution of John von Neumann was particu­larly significant. As contrasted with Babbage's analytical engine, which was designed to store only data, von Neumann's ma­chine, called the Electronic Discrete Variable Computer, or EDVAC, was able to store both data and instructions. He also contributed to the idea of storing data and instructions in a bi­nary code that uses only ones and zeros. This simplified com­puter design. Thus computers use two conditions, high voltage, and low voltage, to translate the symbols by which we commu­nicate into unique combinations of electrical pulses. Wfe refer to these combinations as codes.

Neumann's stored program computer as well as other ma­chines of that time were made possible by the invention of the vacuum tube that could control and amplify electronic signals. Early computers, using vacuum tubes, could perform compu­tations in thousandths of seconds, called milliseconds, instead of seconds required by mechanical devices.

9. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, ис­пользуя информацию текста.

1. When was the first analog computer built? 2. Where and how was that computer used? 3. When did the first digital computers appear? 4. Who was the inventor of the first digital computer? 5. What could that device do? 6. What is ENIAC? Decode the word. 7. What was J.Neumann's contribution into the development of computers? 8. What were the advantages of EDVAC in comparison with ENIAC? 9, What does binary coda


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 36

mean? 10. Due to what invention could the first digital com­puters be built?

10. Найдите в тексте 2 английские эквиваленты следующих
словосочетаний.

Цифровые компьютеры; технические усовершенствова­ния; совершенствование компьютеров; ответственный за изобретение; математические задачи; электронные трубки; важное достижение; запоминающее устройство; значи­тельный вклад; двоичный код; высокое напряжение; низ­кое напряжение; электрические импульсы; тысячная доля секунды.

Происходить; завершать; вычислять; хранить команды внутри компьютера; запоминать информацию; запоминать команды; содействовать; использовать единицу и ноль; упрощать дизайн; усиливать сигналы; выполнять вычис­ления.

11. Составьте пары близких по значению слов из перечня,
представленного ниже.

Verbs: to name, to complete, to calculate, to develop, to keep, to interprete, to communicate, to fulfill, to apply, to trans­late, to improve, to build, to call, to store, to communicate, to figure out, to perform, to use, to finish, to construct, to con­nect.

Nouns: speed, aim, storage, information, machine, signifi­cance, computation, data, device, rate, calculation, purpose, memory, importance.

12. Заполните пропуски необходимыми словами.

1. The first digital computer could f< yV' a lot of mathe­matical problems at a fast Г '-'■ 2. Vannevar Bush built the firsts/'-7 '-; computer in 1930. 3. Babbage's analytical engine was designed to c '' ^data. 4. J.von Neumann invented a ma­chine that was able to.' not only data but also . _______

5. Neumann_____ the idea of storing data in a ^____ .

6. Computers use two conditions for- symbols. 7. The

invention of_________ made computers possible to control

and_____ electronic signals. 8. Due to_________ comput­
ers could perform____ much faster.


37 Unit 3. History of Computers

13. Переведите предложения или словосочетания, содер­
жащие:

А. Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства

1. Computers were designed to perform thousands of com­putations per second. 2. To make computers more reliable tran­sistors were used. 3. They were applied to reduce computation­al time. 4. To integrate large numbers of circuit elements into a small chip, transistors should be reduced in size. 5. To use in­tegrated circuit technology new computers were built. 6. Ana­lytical engine was invented to store data.

Б. Инфинитив в функции определения

The problem to be solved; the work to be finished; the cards to be punched; calculations to be performed; the machine to be shown at the exhibition; the device to be provided with the nec­essary facts; computers to be used for data processing; efforts to increase reliability; electronics to connect systems and sub­systems; the speed of response to depend on the size of transis­tor; computers to perform thousands of calculations per second; vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals; these are circuits to use a large number of transistors; operations to be performed.

14. Выполните письменноперевод текста 3 повариантам.

ТезЛЗ. SOME FIRST COMPUTER MODELS

1. Babbage's AnalyticalEngine

In 1832, an English inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage was commissioned by the British government to devel­op a system for calculating the rise and fall of the tides.

Babbage designed a device and called it an analytical engine. It was the first programmable computer, complete with punched cards for data input. Babbage gave the engine the ability to per­form different types of mathematical operations. The machine was not confined to simple addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. It had its own "memory", due to which the machine could use different combinations and sequences of operations to suit the purposes of the operator.

The machine of his dream was never realized in his life. Yet Babbage's idea didn't die with him. Other scientists made at-


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 38

tempts to build mechanical, general-purpose, stored-program computers throughout the next century. In 1941 a relay com­puter was built in Germany by Conrad Zuse. It was a major step toward the realization of Babbage's dream.

2. The Mark I Computer (1937-1944)

In 1944 in the United States, International Business Ma­chines (IBM) built a machine in cooperation with scientists working at Harvard University under the direction of Prof. Aik-en. The machine, called Mark I Automatic Sequence-Con­trolled Calculator, was built to perform calculations for the Manhattan Project, which led to the development of atomic bomb. It was the largest electromechanical calculator ever built. It used over 3000 electrically actuated switches to control its operations. Although its operations were not controlled elec­tronically, Aiken's machine is often classified as a computer because its instructions, which were entered by means of a punched paper tape, could be altered. The computer could cre­ate ballistic tables used by naval artillery.

The relay computer had its problems. Since relays are elec­tromechanical devices, the switching contacts operate by means of electromagnets and springs. They are slow, very noisy and consume a lot of power.

3. The ABC (1939-1942)

The work on introducing electronics into the design of com­puters was going on.

The gadget that was the basis for the first computer revolu­tion was the vacuum tube, an electronic device invented early in the twentieth century. The vacuum tube was ideal for use in computers. It had no mechanical moving parts. It switched flows of electrons off and on at rates far faster than possible with any mechanical device. It was relatively reliable, and operated hun­dreds of hours before failure. The first vacuum tube computer was built at Iowa University at about the same time as the Mark I. The computer, capable to perform thousands of related computations, was called ABC, the Atanasoff-Berry Comput­er, after Dr.John Atanasoff, a professor of physics and his assis­tant, Clifford Berry. It used 45 vacuum tubes for internal logic and capacitors for storage. From the ABC a number of vacu­um-tube digital computers developed.


39 Unit 3. History of Computers

Soon the British developed a computer with vacuum tubes and used it to decode German messages.

15. Поменяйтесь вариантами, прочтите текст и выразите
одним-двумя предложениями основную мысль текстов,
предложенных выше.

16. Прочтите текст 4 и передайте кратко его содержание
а) на русском языке; б) на английском языке.

Text 4, FOUR GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS

The first vacuum tubes computers are referred to as first gen­eration computers, and the approximate period of their use was from 1950 to 1959. UNIVAC 1 (UNF&rsal Automatic Com­puter) is an example of these computers which could perform thousands of calculations per second. Those devices were not only bulky, they were also unreliable. The thousands of vacuum tubes emitted large amounts of heat and burned out frequently.

The transistor, a smaller and more reliable successor to the vacuum tube, was invented in 1948. So-called second genera­tion computers, which used large numbers of transistors were able to reduce computational time from milliseconds to microsec­onds, or millionths of seconds. Second-generation computers were smaller, faster and more reliable than first-generation com­puters.

Advances in electronics technology continued, and micro­electronics made it possible to reduce the size of transistors and integrate large numbers of circuit elements into very small chips of silicon. The computers that were designed to use integrated circuit technology were called third generation computers, and the approximate time span of these machines was from 1960 to 1979. They could perform many data processing operations in nanoseconds, which are billionths of seconds.

Fourth generation computers have now arrived, and the inte­grated circuits that are being developed have been greatly re­duced in size. This is due to microminiaturization, which means that the circuits are much smaller than before; as many as 100 tiny circuits are placed now on a single chip. A chip is a square or rectangular piece of silicon, usually from 1/10 to 1/4 inch, upon which several layers of an integrated circuit are etched or


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 40

imprinted, after which the circuit is encapsulated in plastic or metal.

TESTS

1. Подберите вместо пропусковподходящее по смыслу слово.

1. British scientists invented a___ way of multiplying and

dividing.

a) mechanical; b) electrical; c) optical

2. A new branch of mathematics,____ , was invented in

England and Germany independently.

a) mechanics; b) arithmetics; c) calculus

3. A young American clerk invented a means of coding
_____ by punched cards.

a) letters; b) data; c) numbers

4. Soon punched cards were replaced by___ terminals.

a) printer; b) scanner; c) keyboard

5. Mark I was the first_____ computer that could solve

mathematical problems.

a) analog; 1?) digital; c) mechanical

6. J. von Neumann simplified his computer by storing in­
formation in a_____ code.

a) analytical; b) numerical; c) binary

7. Vacuum tubes could control and____ electric signals.

a) calculate; b) amplify; c) generate

8. The first generation computers were_____ and often

burned out.

a) uncomfortable; b) uncommunicative; c) unreliable

9. Computers of the second generation used____ which

reduced computational time greatly.

a) transistors; b) integrated circuits; c) vacuum tubes

10. Due to_____ the development of the fourth generation

computers became possible.

a) microelectronics; b) miniaturization; c) microminia­turization


41 Unit 3. History of Computers

2. Выберите правильный переводпредложений, содержа­щих неличные формы глагола (Infinitive, Gerund, Participle I, Participle II).

1. That was the machine provided with the necessary facts
about the problem to be solved.

а) Машину обеспечили необходимыми фактами, чтобы она решила проблему.

*б) То была машина, снабженная необходимой ин­формацией о задаче, которую предстояло решить. в) Эту машину обеспечили необходимой информа­цией о решаемой задаче.

2. The computers designed to use 1С were called third gen-

eration computers.

а) Компьютеры сконструировали для использования
ИС и назвали их третьим поколением.

б) Компьютеры назывались третьим поколением,
потому что в них использовались ИС.

*в) Компьютеры, сконструированные, чтобы исполь­зовать ИС, назывались компьютерами третьего по­коления.

3. Mark I was the first machine to figure out mathematical
problems.

а) Первая машина для вычисления математических проблем была Марк I.

•б) Марк I явилась первой машиной для вычисления математических задач.

•в) Марк I была первой машиной, которая вычисля­ла математические задачи.

4. Early computers using vacuum tubes could perform com-

putations in milliseconds.

■ а) Первые компьютеры, использующие электронные лампы, могли выполнять вычисления в течение мил­лисекунд.

■б) Ранние компьютеры использовали вакуумные лампы, которые выполняли вычисления за миллисе­кунды.

в) Рано компьютеры, использующие электронные
трубки, выполняли вычисления за миллисекунды.


Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 42

5. Vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals were

invented by Neumann.

а) Изобретенные Нойманом вакуумные лампы регу­
лировали и усиливали электрические сигналы.

б) Нойман изобрел электронные лампы для управ­
ления и усиления электрических сигналов.

■в) Электронные лампы, которые регулировали и уси­ливали электрические сигналы, были изобретены Нойманом.

6. Neumann's machine called the EDVAC was designed to
store both data and instructions.

а)'Неймановскую машину, называемую EDVAC, сконструировали для хранения информации и ко­манд.

-б) Машина Ноймана, названная EDVAC, была созда­на, чтобы запоминать как информацию, так и ко­манды.

в) Машину Ноймана, которая хранила данные и
инструкции, назвали EDVAC.

7. Computers were developed to perform calculations for
military and scientific purposes.

-а) Компьютеры были созданы, чтобы выполнять вычисления для военных и научных целей.

б) Компьютеры создали для выполнения военных и
научных вычислений.

в) Созданные компьютеры выполняли вычисления
военного и научного назначения.

8. An American clerk invented a means of coding the data
by punching holes into cards.

а) Американский служащий изобрел посредством кодирования информации перфокарту. »б) Американский клерк изобрел перфокарту, коди­руя информацию.

^ в) Американский служащий изобрел средство шиф­рования информации путем пробивания отверстий в карте.


Unit 4 DATA PROCESSING CONCEPTS

1. Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.

data processing ['deita prou'sesirj] — обработка информа­ции (данных)

to convert [ksn'vait] — преобразовывать; переводить (в др. единицы)

to accomplish [a'komphj] —завершать, заканчивать; осу­ществлять, выполнять.

to house ['haus] — помещать, размещать

to improve [im'pru:v] — улучшать, совершенствовать

to control [kan'troul] — управлять, регулировать; управ­ление, регулирование

to store ['sto:] — хранить, запоминать, заносить (разме­щать) в памяти

storage [fstD:nd3] — запоминающее устройство, память; хранение

resource [n'sors] — ресурс; средство; возможность facility [fa'silrti] —- устройство; средство facilities — приспособления; возможности

equipment [I'kwipmsnt] — оборудование; аппаратура; приборы; устройства

available [s'veibbl] — доступный; имеющийся (в нали­чии); возможный

display [dis'plei] — дисплей; устройство (визуального) отображения; показ

manner ['тзепэ] — способ, образ (действий)

sequence ['sikwsns] — последовательность, порядок (сле­дования)

sucessively [ssk'sesivh] — последовательно

data storage hierarchy [hais'raiki] — иерархия (последова­тельность) запоминания информации (данных)



45 Unit 4. Data Processing Concepts

Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности 44

to enter ['enta] — входить; вводить (данные); заносить, записывать

comprehensive groupings — полные, обширные, универ­сальные образования

meaningful ['mi:ninful] — имеющий смысл; значащий (о данных)

item ['aitsm] — элемент; составная часть record ['reko:d] — запись, регистрация; записывать, ре­гистрировать

file ['fail] — файл; заносить (хранить) в файл set — набор; множество; совокупность; серия; группа; система

data base ['deita 'beis] — база данных

related [n'leitid] — смежный; взаимосвязанный; относя­щийся (к ч.-л.)

2. Прочтите текст и скажите, как вы понимаете термины «обработка информации» и «иерархия запоминания ин­формации».

Text 1. DATA PROCESSING AND DATA PROCESSING SYSTEMS

The necessary data are processed by a computer to become useful information. In fact this is the definition of data process­ing. Data are a collection of facts — unorganized but able to be-organized into useful information. Processing is aseries of ac­tions or operations that convert inputs into outputs. When we*1 speak of data processing, the input is data, and the output is useful information. So, we can define data processing as a se­ries of actions or operations that converts data into useful in­formation.

We use the term data processing system to include the resourc­es that are used to accomplish the processing of data. There are four types of resources: people, materials, facilities, and equip­ment. People provide input to computers, operate them, and use their output. Materials, such as boxes of paper and printer rib­bons, are consumed in great quantity. Facilities are required to house the computer equipment, people and materials.


The need for converting facts into useful information is not a phenomenon of modern life. Throughout history, and even prehistory, people have found it necessary to sort data into forms that were easier to understand. For example, the ancient Egyp­tians recorded the ebb and flow of the Nile River and used this information to predict yearly crop yields.*Today computers con­vert data about land and water into recommendations to farm­ers on crop planting. Mechanical aids to computation were de­veloped and improved upon in Europe, Asia, and America throughout the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centu­ries. Modern computers are marvels of an electronics technol­ogy that continues to produce smaller, cheaper, and more pow­erful components.









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