Unit 1. Science and Technology.
Лекции.ИНФО


Unit 1. Science and Technology.



Content

1. Unit 1. Science and Technology ………………………………………………………….3

2. Unit 2. What is a Computer? ……………………………………………………………13

3. Unit 3. Computer Operations and Operating Systems …………………………………..16

4. Unit 4. Data Processing and Computer Systems ………………………………………..22

5. Unit 5. Central Processing Unit and Storage …………………………………………… 30

6. Unit 6. Personal Computers and Computer Programming ……………………………..45

7. Glossary ………………………………………………………………………………….53

8. Extra reading texts ………………………………………………………………………..59

9. A List of Literature ………………………………………………………………………65

 

 

Unit 1. Science and Technology.

Text 1 Science.

Before reading the text translate the following words:

Science, cover, broad, deal with, relationship, wide, variety, search for, clue, universe, origin, cell, research, solve, complicated, unity, attempt, happen, consider, prove, divide, major, grow (grew), complicated, boundary, clear, numerous, overlap, interconnect, influence, provide, discovery, invention, shape, Universe, tool.

The word “science” comes from the Latin word “scientia”, which means “knowledge”. Science covers the broad field of knowledge that deals with facts and the relationship among these facts.

Scientists study a wide variety of subjects. Some scientists search for clues to the origin of the Universe and examine the structure of the cells of living plants and animals. Other researches investigate why we act the way we do, or try to solve complicated mathematical problems.

Scientists use systematic methods of study to make observations and collect facts. They develop theories that help them order and unity facts. Scientific theories consist of general principals or laws that attempt to explain how and why something happens or happened. A theory is considered to become a part of scientific knowledge if it has been tested experimentally and proved to be true.

Scientific study can be divided into three major groups: the natural, social and technical sciences. As science knowledge grew and became more complicated. Many new fields of science appeared. At the same time, the boundaries between scientific fields became less clear. Numerous areas of science overlap each other and it is often hard to tell where one science ends and another begins. All sciences are closely interconnected.

Science has great influence on our life. It provides the basis of modern technology – the tools and machines that make our life and work easier. The discoveries and inventions of scientists also help shape our view about ourselves and our place in the Universe.

 

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English for: большая область знаний, иметь дело с, отношения между, большое множество, и происхождение Вселенной, решать проблемы, граница между, различать, близко взаимосвязаны, оказывать влияние, сформировать взгляд на.

Exercise 2. Find in the text the synonyms for: learn, a large number of, look for, decide, difficult problems, try, scientific research, major groups, various.

Exercise 3. Choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph.

1) The fields of scientific research.

2) Different groups of sciences.

3) The importance of science.

4) What is science?

5) Methods of scientific research.

Exercise 4. Ask questions to the following sentences.

1. The word “science” comes from the Latin word “scientia”.

2. Scientists use systematic methods of study to make observations and collect facts.

3. Scientific study can be divided into three major groups: the natural.

4. Scientists use systematic methods of study to make observations and collect facts

5. Science has great influence on our life.

 

Text 2. Technology

Technology means the use of people’s inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs. Since people appeared on the Earth, they had to get food, clothes and shelter. Through the ages people invented tools, machines and materials to make work easier.

Nowadays, when people speak of technology, they generally mean industrial technology. Industrial technology began about 200 years ago with the development of the steam engine, the growth of factories, and the mass production of goods. It influenced different aspects of people’s lives. The development of the car influenced where people lived and worked. Radio and television changed their leisure time. The telephone revolutionized communication.

Science contributed much to modern technology. Science attempts to explain how and why things happen. Technology makes things happen. But not all technology is based on science. For example, people made different objects from iron for centuries before they learnt the structure of the metal. But some modern technologies, such as nuclear power production and space travel, depend heavily on science.

 

Exercise 1. Find in text 2 the English for: изобретения и открытия, удовлетворять потребности, инструменты, облегчить работу, промышленная технология, паровой двигатель, развитие, рост, массовое производство товаров, влиять, способствовать, делать попытку, атомная энергия, сильно зависеть от.

Exercise 2. Find in the texts the words, which have the opposite meanings to the following:

Narrow, easy, practice, to try, artificial, old, more, to begin, small, different, little

Exercise 3. Read, translate the sentences, change the words in italics into the words with similar and opposite meanings

1.He happened to meet her in that broad street. 2. They are investigating complex problems. 3. It was a very difficult experiment. 4. They started researching this problem. 5. It was a big contribution.

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with the articles a, an, the where necessary.

... most common type of... computer is ... digital computer.... larg­est digital computers are ... parts of.... computer system that fill... large room. ... smallest digital computers — some so small they can рай through ... eye of... needle — are found inside ... watches, ... pocket calculators, and ... other devices.

Exercise 5. a) Read and state the function of the verbs be, have

All digital computers have two basic parts: a memory and a processor. The memory is receiving data and holding them until they are needed. The memory is made up of a big collection of switches (переключатели). The processor is changing data into useful information by the converting numbers into other numbers. It reads numbers from the memory, performs basic arithmetic calculations, and puts the answer back into the memory. The processor is performing this activity and over again until the desired result is achieved. Both the memory and the processor are electronic.

b) Fill in the blanks with the verbs be, have

People ... used calculating devices since ancient times. The first electronic digital computer ... built in 1946. The large room ... filled with the computer. Since then rapid improvement in computer technology ... led to the development of smaller, more powerful, and less еxpensive computers. But computers ... not able to think. A user... to tell the computer in very simple terms exactly what to do with the data it receives. A list of instructions for a computer to follow ... called a program.

Exercise 6 . Mind the word order

a) Extend the following sentences with the words given in brackets.

1. Scientists solve problems (complicated, some, mathematical, to try).

2. Researchers make observations (facts, and, collect).

3. The boundaries have become clear (fields, scientific, between

less).

4. Science has influence on lives (our, great).

5. Technology makes life easier (our, and, work, modern).

b) Put the words in the following sentences in order, the first word in each sentence is in italics.

1. interconnected, sciences, All, closely, are.

2. provides, Science, of, technology, modern, the, basis.

3. people, the, ages, Through, tools, invented, have, machines, ma­terials, and.

4. influenced, aspects, people's, of, different, Industrial, technolo­gy, lives.

5. our, time, Radio, television, and, leisure, changed.

Exercise 7. Complete the following sentences in a logical way

1. The word "science" comes from ...

2. Science deals with ...

3. Scientists study...

4. Some scientists search for ...

5. Other researchers solve ...

6. Scientific theories consist of...

7. A theory becomes ...

8. Scientific study can be divided into ...

9. The boundaries between scientific fields have become ...

10. Science provides ...

11. Technology means ...

12. Industrial technology began ...

13. Technology influenced ...

14. Science attempts to explain ...

15. Technology makes ...

Exercise 8. Make up special question according to the model, and answer them

a) Model: Technology influences all aspects of people's life.

What does technology influence?

1. Science provides the basis of modern technology. 2. Technology means the use of people's inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs. 3. This scientist uses systematic methods of study. 4. He usually tests any theory experimentally. 5. He proves it to be true.

b) Model: Scientists can study a wide variety of subjects.

What can scientists study?

1. The scientists can examine the structure of the cells of living plan and animals. 2. The scientists can solve different mathematical problems. 3. Scientists can use systematic methods of study. 4. They can make observations. 5. They can develop theories.

Exercise 9. Make up questions the answers to which will be words in italics. The words in

brackets will help you

1.The word "science" means "knowledge"(what). 2. The scientists can order facts (what). 3. The scientists can unity facts (what). 4. They usually test the theory experimentally (what). 5. Technology influences different aspects of our life (what).

Exercise 10. Answer the following questions about science and technology.

1. What is science?

2. What is technology?

3. Are they interconnected?

4. Is all technology based on science?

5. What modern technologies depend heavily on science?

6. When did industrial technology begin?

7. When was a steam engine invented?

8. Who invented the steam engine?

9. When was radio invented?

10. Who invented the radio?

11. When was television invented?

12 Who invented the television?

13. When was a telephone invented?

14. Who invented the telephone?

15. When was the first car invented?

16. When was the first digital computer invented?

17. Who invented the first digital computer?

18.What famous scientists do you know?

19. What famous inventors do you know?

20. What scientific field are you interested in? Why?

Exercise 11. Translate the following sentences from Russian into En­glish.

1. Слово "science" происходит от латинского слова "scientia", которое означает "наука". 2. Ученые изучают широкий круг про­блем. 3. Некоторые ученые ищут разгадку происхождения Bселенной. 4. Другие изучают строение клетки. 5. Некоторые исследуют причины нашего поведения. 6. Ученые используют систематические методы изучения проблем. 7. Науки могут быть разделены на три главные группы: естественные, общественные, технические науки. 8. Но границы между научными областями становятся все менее и менее четкими. 9. Все науки тесно взаи­мосвязаны. 10. Наука оказывает огромное влияние на нашу жизнь. 11. Она является основой современной технологии. 12. Сегодня, когда люди говорят о технологии, они имеют ввиду Промышленную технологию. 13. Промышленная технология на­шла свое существование около 200 лет назад с появлением парового двигателя, ростом фабрик и массовым производством товаров. 14. Радио и телевидение изменило наш досуг; телефон произвел революцию в общении. 15. Открытия и изобретения ученых помогают нам формировать наши взгляды о себе и о нашем месте во Вселенной.

 

Text 3. Computer Literacy

 

Informed citizens of our information-dependent society should be computer-literate, which means that they should be able to use computers as everyday problem-solving devices. They should be aware of the potential of computers to influence the quality of life.

There was a time when only privileged people had an opportunity to learn the basics, called the three R's: reading, writing, and arithmetic’s. Now, as we are quickly becoming an informa­tion-becoming society, it is time to restate this right as the right to learn reading, writing and computing. There is little doubt that computers and their many applications are among the most significant technical achievements of the century. They bring with them both economic and social changes. "Computing" is a concept that embraces not only the old third R, arithmetics, but also .a new Idea — computer literacy.

In an information society a person who is computer-literate need not be an expert on the design of computers. He needn't even know much about how to prepare programs which are the instructions that direct the operations of computers. All of us are already on the way to becoming computer-literate.

If you buy something with a bank credit card or pay a bill by сheck, computers help you process the information. When you check out at the counter of your store, a computer assists the checkout clerk and the store manager. When you visit your doc­tor, your schedules and bills and special services, such as labo­ratory tests, are prepared by computer. Many actions that you have taken or observed have much in common. Each relates to some aspect of a data processing system.

Exercise 1. Translate into English and remember the following.

Информационно-зависимое общество; человек, обладающий компьютерной грамотностью; устройство, решающее повседневные проблемы; понимать, сознавать; влиять на качество жизни; иметь возможность, изучать основы; научиться работе на компьютере; наиболее значимые технические достижения; охватывать компьютерной грамотностью; писать программы; направлять работу компьютера; обрабатывать информацию; иметь много общего; система обработки данных.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions on the text.

I. What does "a computer-literate person" mean? 2. Are you aware of the potential of computers to influence your life? 3. What do the people mean by "the basics"? 4. What is the role of computers in our society? 5. What is "computing'? 6. What is a program? 7. Prove that we all are on the way to becoming computer-literate. 8. Give examples of using computers in ev­eryday life.

Exercise 3. Give the 3 forms of the verbs.

То be; to have; to mean; to learn; to become; to bring; to know; to think; to buy; to pay; to take; to do; to begin; to give; to make; to keep; to get; to read; to show.

Exercise 4. Turn the sentences into Past Simple.

1. Many people have an opportunity to use computers. 2. There is no doubt that computers solve problems very quickly. 3. Instructions direct the operation of a computer. 4. Computers bring with them both economic and social changes. 5. Comput­ing embraces not only arithmetics, but also computer literacy. 6.It is well known that computers prepare laboratory tests. 7. Those persons are computer literate and think of buying a new computer. 8. They receive a subscription magazine once a month. 9. My mother is ill and visits her doctor every other day. 10. Experts know much about how to prepare programs.

Text 6. The First Computers

In 1930 the first analog computer was built by American named Vannevar Bush. This device was used in World War II to help aim guns.

Many technical developments of electronic digital computers took place in the 1940s and 1950s. Mark I, the name given to the first digital computer, was completed in 1944. The man responsible for this invention was Professor Howard Aiken. This was the first machine that could figure out long lists of mathe­matical problems at a very fast rate.

In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsilvania, J. Eckert and J. Maushly, built their digital computer with vacu­um tubes. They named their new invention ENIAC (the Elec­tronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator).

Another important achievement in developing computers came in 1947, when John von Neumann developed the idea of keeping instructions for the computer inside the computer's memory. The contribution of John von Neumann was particularly significant. As contrasted with Babbage's analytical engine, which was designed to store only data, von Neumann's machine, called the Electronic Discrete Variable Computer, or EDVAC, was able to store both data and instructions. He also contributed to the idea of storing data and instructions in a bi­nary code that uses only ones and zeros. This simplified com­puter design. Thus computers use two conditions, high voltage, and low voltage, to translate the symbols by which we communicate into unique combinations of electrical pulses. We refer to these combinations as codes.

Neumann's stored program computer as well as other machines of that time were made possible by the invention of the vacuum tube that could control and amplify electronic signals. Early computers, using vacuum tubes, could perform compu­tations in thousandths of seconds, called milliseconds, instead seconds required by mechanical devices.

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English for: цифровые компьютеры; технические усовершенствова­ния; совершенствование компьютеров; ответственный за изобретение; математические задачи; электронные трубки; важное достижение; запоминающее устройство; значи­тельный вклад; двоичный код; высокое напряжение; низ­кое напряжение; электрические импульсы; тысячная доля секунды, происходить; завершать; вычислять; хранить команды внутри компьютера; запоминать информацию; запоминать команды; содействовать; использовать единицу и ноль; упрощать дизайн; усиливать сигналы; выполнять вычис­ления.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions on the text.

I When was the first analog computer built? 2. Where and how was that computer used? 3. When did the first digital computer appear? 4. Who was the inventor of the first digital computer? 5. What could that device do? 6. What is ENIAC? Decode the word. 7. What was J. Neumann's contribution into the development of computers? 8. What were the advantages of EDVAC in comparison with ENIAC? 9. What does binary code mean? 10. Due to what invention could the first digital com­puters be built?

Exercise 3. Make up pairs of synonyms from the given words.

Verbs:to name, to complete, to calculate, to develop, to keep, to interprete, to communicate, to fulfill, to apply, to trans­late, to improve, to build, to call, to store, to communicate, to figure out, to perform, to use, to finish, to construct, to con­nect.

Nouns: speed, aim, storage, information, machine, signifi­cance, computation, data, device, rate, calculation, purpose, memory, importance.

Exercise 4.Fill in the gaps with proper words.

1. The first digital computer could____ a lot of mathe­matical problems at a fast 2. Vannevar Bush built the first______________________ computer in 1930. 3. Babbage's analytical engine was designed to data. 4. J.von Neumann invented a ma­chine that was able to _____ not only data but also . 5. Neumann the idea of storing data in a ____________ . 6. Computers use two conditions for __________ symbols. 7. The invention of _____ _____made computers possible to control and electronic signals. 8. Due to _____ ______ computers could perform ____________ much faster.

Exercise 5. Translate the following word combinations with the Infinitive.

I. Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства

I. Computers were designed to perform thousands of computations per second. 2. To make computers more reliable tran­sistors were used. 3. They were applied to reduce computational time. 4. To integrate large numbers of circuit elements into a small chip, transistors should be reduced in size. 5. To use in­tegrated circuit technology new computers were built. 6. Ana­lytical engine was invented to store data.

II. Инфинитив в функции определения

The problem to be solved; the work to be finished; the cards to be punched; calculations to be performed; the machine to be shown at the exhibition; the device to be provided with the necessary facts; computers to be used for data processing; efforts to increase reliability; electronics to connect systems and subsystems; the speed of response to depend on the size of transistor; computers to perform thousands of calculations per second; vacuum tubes to control and amplify electric signals; these are circuits to use a large number of transistors; operations to be performed.

Unit 2. What is a Computer?

Text 1. What is a Computer?

 

Computer is a device for processing information. Computer has no intelligence by itself and is called hardware. A computer system is a combination of four elements:

Hardware

Software

Procedures

Data/information

Software are the programmes that tell the hardware how to perform a task. Without software instructions, the hardware doesn't know what to do.

The basic job of the computer is the processing of information. Computers take information in the form of instructions called programmes and symbols called data. After that they perform various mathematical and logical operations, and then give the results (information). Computer is used to convert data into information. Computer is also used to store information in the digital form.

 

Text 3. Introduction to the WWW and the Internet.

Million of people around the world use the Internet to search for and retrieve information on all sorts of topics including arts, business, humanities, news, politics and recreation. People communicate through electronic mail (e-mail), discussion groups, chat channels and other means of informational exchange. They share information and make commercial and business transactions. All this activity is possible because tens of thousands of networks are connected to the Internet and exchange information in the same basic ways.

The World Wide Web (WWW) is a part of the Internet. But it is not a collection of networks. Rather, it is information that is connected or linked together like a web. You access this information through one interface or tool called a Web browser. The number of resources and services that are part of the World Wide Web is growing extremely fast. In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the WWW. By using a computer terminal (hardware) connected to a network that is a part of the Internet, and by using a program (software) to browse or retrieve information that is a part of the World Wide Web, the people connected to the Internet and WWW through the local providers. Each browser provides a graphical interface. You move from place to place, from site to site on the Web by using a mouse to click on a portion of text, icon or region of the map. These items are called hyperlinks or links. Each link you select represents a document, an image, a video clip or an audio file somewhere on the Internet. The user doesn't need to know where it is, the browser follows the link.

All sorts of things are available on the WWW. One can use the WWW for the recreation purposes. Many TV and radio stations broadcast line on the WWW. Essentially, if something can be put into digital format and stored in a computer, then it's available on the WWW. You can even visit museums, gardens, cities throughout the world, learn foreign languages and meet new friends. And of course you can play computer games through WWW, competing with partners from other countries and continents.

Just a little bit of exploring the World Wide Web will show you what a much of use and fun it is.

 

Unit 3.

Text 1. What is hardware?

Hardware is the devices composing a computer system. Computer hardware can be divided into 4 categories:

1. Input hardware

2. Processing hardware

3. Storage hardware

4. Output hardware

Input hardware

Input hardware collects data and converts them into a form suitable for computer processing. The most common input device is a keyboard. It looks like a typewriter. The mouse is a hand-held device connected to the computer by a small cable. As the mouse is rolled across the desktop, the cursor moves across the screen. When the cursor reaches the needed location, the user usually presses the button on the mouse once or twice to give a command to a computer.

Another type of input hardware is optic-electronic scanner. Microphone and videocamera can be also used to input data into the computer.

Processing hardware

Processing hardware directs the execution of software instructions in the computer. The most common components of processing hardware are the central processing unit and main memory.

The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. It reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing.

Memory is the component of the computer in which information is stored. There two types of computer memory: random access memory (RAM) and read only memory (ROM).

Random access memory is the memory, used for creating, loading and running programs.

Read only memory is computer memory used to hold programmed instructions to the system.

The more memory you have in your computer, the more operations you can perform.

Storage hardware.

The purpose of storage hardware is to store computer instructions and data and retrieve when needed for processing. Storage hardware stores data as electromagnetic signals. The most common ways of storing data are hard disk, floppy disk and CD - ROM.

Hard disk is a rigid disk coated with magnetic material, for storing programs and a large amount of data.

Floppy disk (diskette) - a thin, usually flexible plastic disk coated with magnetic material, for storing temporary computer data and programs. There are two formats of floppy disks; 5.25' and 3.5’.

3.5' disks are formatted 1.4 megabytes and are widely used.

CD - ROM (compact disk read only memory) is a compact disk on which a large amount of digitized data can be stored. CD - ROMs are very popular now because of the growing speed which CD- ROM drives can provide nowadays.

Output hardware.

The purpose of output hardware is to provide the user with the means to view information produced by the computer system. Information is in either hardcopy or softcopy forms. Hardcopy output can be held in your hand, such as paper with text (words or numbers) or graphics printed on it. Softcopy output is displayed on a monitor.

Monitor is a display screen for viewing computer data, television programs, etc. Printer is a computer output device that produces a paper copy of data or graphics.

Modem is an example of communication hardware - an electronic device that makes possible the transmission of data to or from computer via telephone or other communication lines.

Hardware comes in many configurations, depending on what you are going to do on your computer.

Types of Data

With the advent of new computer applications and hardware, the definition of data expanded to include many types.

Numeric data consists of numbers and decimal points, as well as the plus (+) and minus (-) signs. Both arithmetic operations and logical operations are performed on numeric data. This means that numbers can be used for calculations as well as sorted and compared to each other.

Text, or textual data, can contain any combinations of letters, numbers special characters. Sometimes textual data is known as alphanumeric data.

Various forms of data that we can hear and see make up audio-visual data. The computer can produce sounds, music and even human voice. It can also accept audio information as an input. Data can also take form of drawings and video sequences.

Physical datais captured from the environment. For example, light, temperature and pressure are all types of physical data. In many large buildings, computer systems process several kinds of physical data to regulate operations. Computers can set off security alarms, control temperature and humidity, or turn lights on and off,, all in response to physical data. These applications increase people’s safety and save the time and money.

Text 3. Types of Software

A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we can see and touch. It requires Software – programs for directing the operation of a computer or electronic data. Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a general – purpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are performed.

Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system software and application software.

System software controls standard internal computer activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the system programs is booted or loaded into the computer memory. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disc drives to be used, and more. Once the system software is loaded, the application software can start to work.

System programs are designed for the specific pieces of hardware. These programs are called drivers and coordinate peripheral hardware and computer activities. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate his peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer, or a scanner, you need to worry in advance about the driver program, which commonly goes along with your device. By installing a driver you teach your mainboard to understand the newly attached part.

Application software satisfies your specific needs. The developers of software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include all kinds of gimmicks in one program to make software interface look more attractive to their user. This class of programs is the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point of view.

Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by system software. Communications software transfers data from one computer system to another. These programs usually provide users with data security and error checking along with physically transferring data between the two computers’ memory. During the past five years the developing electronic network communication stimulated more and more companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-Browsers for Internet.

Exercise 1. Find in Text 4 the English equivalents: управлять; проводить; завершать; оборудование; внутренний; требовать; управление; конкретный, определенный; многоцелевой; помощь; отношение; несмотря на; вместимость памяти; устанавливать, встраивать; переводить, переносить; обеспечивать чем-либо; обеспечивать безопасность; развивать, проявлять; разработчик; проверять; присоединять; запускать; трюк, приманка.

Text 4. Operating Systems

When computers were first introduced in 1940’s, and 50’s, every program written had to provide instructions that told the computer how to use devices such as the printer, how to store information on a disk, as well as how to perform several other tasks not necessarily related to the program. The additional program instructions for working with hardware devices were very complex and time-consuming. Programmers soon realized it would be smarter to develop one program that could control the computer’s hardware, which other programs could use when they needed it. With that, the first operating system was born.

Today, operating systems control and manage the use of hardware devices such as the printer or the mouse. They also provide disk management by letting you store information in files. The operating system also lets you run programs such as the basic word processor. Lastly, the operating system provides several of its own commands that help you to use the computer.

DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS is an abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a company named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for “Microsoft DOS”. When IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed DOS from Microsoft for use on the PC and called it PC – DOS. From the users perspective, PC – DOS and MS – DOS are the same, each providing the same capabilities and commands. The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past decade, DOS underwent several changes. Each time the DOS developers release a new version, they increase the version number.

Windows NT (new technology) is an operating system developed by Microsoft. NT is an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows 3.0, 3.1 programs. NT requires a 386 or greater and 8 MB of RAM. For the best NT performance, you have to use 486 with about 16 MB or higher. Unlike the Windows, which runs on top of DOS, Windows NT is operating system itself. However, NT is DOS compatible. The advantage of using NT over Windows is that NT makes better use of the PC’s memory management capabilities.

OS / 2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, ODS /2 is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse. Also like NT, OS / 2 performs best when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM – based PCs are shipped with OS / 2 preinstalled.

UNIXis a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system. Traditionally, UNIX was run on a larger mini computers to which users accessed the systems using terminals and not PC’s. UNIX allowed each user to simultaneously run the programs they desired. Unlike NT and OS / 2, UNIX is not DOS compatible. Most users would not purchase UNIX for their own use.

Windows 95 and 98 are the most popular user-oriented operating systems with a friendly interface and multitasking capabilities. The usage of Windows 95 and its enhanced version Windows 98 is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly. Windows 95 and 98 are DOS compatible, so all programs written for DOS may work under the new operating system. Windows 95 requires 486 with 16 Mb of RAM or Pentium 75 – 90 with 40 Mb of free hard disk space.

Exercise 1. Find in text 5 the English for:сложный; потреблять; осознать; умный; расширять, увеличивать; вершина; на основе DOS; совместимый; доступ; многочисленные пользователи; одновременно; желать; поставлять.

Unit 4

Data storage hierarchy

It is known that data, once entered, are organized and stored in successively more comprehensive groupings. Generally, these groupings are called a data storage hierarchy. The general group­ings of any data storage hierarchy are as follows.

1) Characters, which are all written language symbols: let­ters, numbers, and special symbols. 2) Data elements, which are meaningful collections of related characters. Data elements are also called data items or fields. 3) Records, which are collections of related data elements. 4) Files, which are collections of re­lated records. A set of related files is called a data base or a data bank.

 

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English for:

Системы обработки информации; определение (терми­на) обработки данных; совокупность фактов; последова­тельность действий; преобразование входных данных в полезную информацию; включать ресурсы; завершить об­работку данных; обеспечивать ввод информации в компь­ютер; ленты принтера; расходовать в большом количестве; размещать компьютерное оборудование; нуждаться (тре­бовать) в приспособлениях; явление современной жизни; на протяжении доисторического периода; превращать ин­формацию в выражения; регистрировать отливы и прили­вы; прогнозировать урожай зерновых культур; механические средства вычисления; ввод данных; хранение данных; первоначальная обработка данных; дополнительная обра­ботка; выдача полезной информации; напечатанное сооб­щение; зрительное отображение; последовательность запо­минания информации; записанные символы языка; элементы информации; база данных; набор взаимосвязан­ных файлов.

Exercise 2.Look at the text once more and answer the questions.

1. What is processing? 2. What is data processing? 3. What does the term of data processing system mean? 4. What basic operations does a data processing system include? 5. What is inputting / storing / outputting information? 6. What do you understand by resources? 7. How did ancient Egyptians convert facts into useful information? 8. When were mechanical aids for computation developed? 9. What does data storage hierarchy mean? 10. What are the general groupings of any data storage hierarchy?

Exercise 3.Translate the following word combinations. Mind the word order.

1. Data resource; storage resource; network resource; security resource; system resource.

2. Communication facilities; data base facilities; display facil­ities; management facilities.

3. Distance control; device control; keyboard control; position control; program control.

4. Computer storage; laser storage; file storage; disk storage; data storage hierarchy.

5. Character sequence; instruction sequence; message se­quence; pulse sequence.

6. Batch file; catalog file; data file; help file; input file; output file; menu file; user file.

7. Command input; data input; disk input; file input; keyboard input; program input.

Exercise 4.Match the right and the left columns.

1.Computer a) the set of instructions that direct

the operations of computers;

2. Computer literacy b) a part of a computer, entering

data into the device;

3. A program c) facts unorganized but able t6 be

organized;

4. Data d) the output of a data processing

system;

5. Data processing e) possessing sufficient knowledge of how computers work and what they can

do to use them as problem-solving tools;
6. Data processing f) a series of operations that results

in the conversion of data system into useful information;

7. Input g) an electronic device performing

calculations on numerical data;

8. Output h) an electronic device accepting

the data processing results from the computer and displaying them;

9. Useful information i) a set of related files;

10. Data bank j) the resources required to accomplish the processing of data.

These resources are personnel, material, facilities and equip­ment.

Exercise 7. Analyze the forms of verbs and translate the sentences properly.

1. Data are processed to become useful information. 2. We use the term data processing to include the resources applied for processing of information. 3. Resources required for accom­plishing the processing of data are called data processing sys­tem. 4. Processing is a series of operations converting inputs into outputs. 5. Facilities are required to house the computer equip­ment. 6. Egyptians used the information to predict crop yields. 7. Information to be put into the computer for processing should be coded into ones and zeroes. 8. Processing is operations on data to convert them into useful information. 9. The first machines designed to manipulate punched card data were widely used for business data processing. 10. Hollerith built one machine to punch the holes and the other to tabulate the collected data.

 

Types of computers

The two basic types of computers are analog and digital. Analog computers simulate physical systems. They operate on the basis of an analogy to the process that is being studied. For ex ample, a voltage may be used to represent other physical quan­tities such as speed, temperature, or pressure. The response of an analog computer is based upon the measurement of signals that vary continuously with time. Hence, analog computers are used in applications that require continuous measurement and control.

Digital computers, as contrasted with analog computers, deal with discrete rather than continuous quantities. They count rather than measure. They use numbers instead of analogous physical quantities to simulate on-going, or real-time processes. Because they are discrete events, commercial transactions are in a natural form for digital computation. This is one reason that digital computers are so widely used in business data processing.

Machines that combine both analog and digital capabilities are called hybrid computers. Many business, scientific, and in­dustrial computer applications rely on the combination of ana­log and digital devices. The use of combination analog devices will continue to increase with the growth in applications of mi­croprocessors and microcomputers. An example of this growth is the trend toward installing control systems in household ap­pliances such as microwave ovens and sewing machines. In the future we will have complete indoor climate control systems and robots to do our housecleaning. Analog sensors will provide in­puts to the control centres of these systems, which will be small digital computers.

 

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English for:

Функции ввода, хранения, обработки, управления и вывода информации; познакомиться; системные блоки; для начала; вспомогательные устройства; разработчик ком­пьютерной системы; хорошая компьютерная подготовка; различные сферы применения; корпорация цифрового оборудования; прикладной программист; системный раз­работчик; главные устройства компьютерной системы; моделировать физические величины; измерение сигналов; к отличие от; иметь дело скорее с дискретными, чем не­прерывными величинами; в режиме реального времени; коммерческие операции; цифровое вычисление; аналого-цифровые компьютеры; тенденция к установке систем управления; домашние приборы.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions.

1. Who designs computers and their accessory equipment? 2. What is the role of an analyst? 3. Is it necessary for a user to become a computer system architect? 4. What functions do computer systems perform? 5. What types of computers do you know? 6. What is the principle of operation of analog comput­ers? 7. How do digital computers differ from analog comput­ers? 8. Where are digital and analog computers used? 9. What are hybrid computers? 10. Where do they find application?

Exercise 3. Form nouns from the given verbs using the suffixes.

A. -er, -or

То control, to compute, to design, to use, to manufacture, to work, to simulate, to operate, to protect, to process, to deal, to perform, to examine, to program, to execute, to transmit, to convert, to print, to consume, to record.

B. -tion, -sion

To organize, to collect, to combine, to apply (ic), to repre­sent, to add, to corporate, to transact, to compute, to produce, to operate, to execute, to protect, to substitute, to prepare, to invent, to decide, to eliminate, to communicate, to correct, to inform.

C. -ment

To require, to measure, to equip, to invest, to accomplish, to improve, to develop, to achieve, to displace, to govern, to move.

Exercise 4. Choose the sentences with the Passive Voice, detect their tense form.

1. It should be noted that computers and their accessory equip­ment are designed by a computer system architect.

2. Unless you are studying engineering, you don't need to be­come a computer system architect.

3. The two basic types of computers are analog and digital.

4. This is one reason that digital computers are so widely used in business data processing.

5. Machines that combine both analog and digital capabilities are called hybrid computers.

Unit 5

Text 1. Storage Units.

 

Computer system architecture is organized around the pri­mary storage unit because all data and instructions used by the computer system must pass through primary storage. Our dis­cussion of computer system units will begin with the functions of the primary and secondary storage units. This leads to the examination of the central processing unit and from there to the consideration of the input and output units. Therefore, the se­quence in which we'll describe the functional units of a digital computer is: 1) storage units, primary and secondary; 2) cen­tral processing unit; 3) input and output units.

As you know, there are primary and secondary storage units. Both contain data and the instructions for processing the data. Data as well as instructions must flow into and out of primary storage.

Primary storage is also called main storage or internal stor­age. The specific functions of internal storage are to hold (store): 1) all data to be processed; 2) intermediate results of process­ing; 3) final results of processing; 4) all the instructions required for ongoing process. Another name for primary storage is mem­ory, because of its similarity to a function of the human brain. However, computer storage differs from human memory in im­portant respects. Computer memory must be able to retain very large numbers of symbol combinations, without forgetting or changing any details. It must be able to locate all its contents quickly upon demand. The combinations of characters, that is, the letters, numbers, and special symbols by which we usually communicate, are coded. The codes used by computer design­ers are based upon a number system that has only two possible values, 0 and 1. A number system with only two digits, 0 and 1, is called a binary number system. Each binary digit is called a bit, from Binary digit. As the information capacity of a single bit is limited to 2 alternatives, codes used by computer design­ers are based upon combinations of bits. These combinations are called binary codes. The most common binary codes are 8-bit codes because an 8-bit code provides for 2/8, or 256 unique combinations of 1 's and 0's, and this is more than adequate to represent all of the characters by which we communicate.

Data in the form of coded characters are stored in adjacent storage locations in main memory in two principal ways : 1) as "strings" of characters — in bytes; and 2) within fixed-size "box­es" — in words. A fixed number of consecutive bits that repre­sent a character is called a byte. The most common byte size is 8-bit byte. Words are usually 1 or more bytes in length.

Secondary storage. Primary storage is expensive because each bit is represented by a high-speed device, such as a semicon­ductor. A million bytes (that is, 8 million bits) is a large amount of primary storage. Often it is necessary to store many millions, sometimes billions, of bytes of data. Therefore slower, less ex­pensive storage units are available for computer systems. These units are called secondary storage. Data are stored in them in the same binary codes as in main storage and are made avail­able to main storage as needed.

 

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents.

Функциональный блок; цифровой компьютер; устрой­ство ввода; устройство управления; арифметико-логичес­кое устройство; центральный процессор; структура компь­ютерной системы; первичное запоминающее устройство; вторичное ЗУ; рассмотрение; поэтому последовательность; оперативное ЗУ; внутренняя память; промежуточные ре­зультаты; подобие функции человеческого мозга; разме­щать содержимое по требованию; система счисления; дво­ичная система счисления; возможные величины; объем информации; двоичный код; смежные ячейки памяти; последовательность символов; быстродействующее уст­ройство; полупроводник; доступный.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions on text 1.

1. What are the functional units of a digital computer?

2. What units make up the central processing unit?

3. How is computer system organized?

4. What are the two main types of storage units?

5. What do they contain?

6. What is the function of a primary storage?

7. Why is primary storage often called memory?

8. In what respect does computer memory differ from human memory?

9. What are codes based on?

10. What is sec­ondary storage and what is it used for?

Exercise 3.Translate the word combinations into Russian.

Storage: available storage; buffer storage; computer storage; data storage; magnetic disk storage; magnetic tape storage; in­put storage; intermediate storage; internal storage; laser storage; main storage; primary storage; secondary storage; sequential-access storage; variable storage; virtual storage.

Value: absolute value; acceptable value; additional value; bi­nary value; byte value; character value; constant value; correct value; data value; digit value; discrete values; invalid value; neg­ative value; numerical value; output value; valid value.

Digit, binary digit; binary-coded digit; check digit; informa­tion digit; input digit; nonsignificant digit; significant digit; dig­it-by-digit.

Sequence: out of sequence; alphabetic sequence; arithmetic se­quence; binary sequence; character sequence; code sequence; in­struction sequence;data sequence; digital sequence; historical se­quence; increasing sequence; program sequence; string sequence.

Exercise 4. Find the synonyms in the text.

Memory; element; information; command; examination; character; quantity; number; place; computer architect; likeness.

To apply; to form; to move; to hold; to demand; to connect; to supply; to place; to name; to start; to examine.

Continuous; significant; consecutive; usual; enough; main; initial; general.

Text 2. Storage Devices.

 

Storage media are classified as primary storage or secondary storage on the basis of combinations of cost, capacity, and access time. The cost of storage devices is expressed as the cost per bit of data stored. The most common units of cost are cents, millicents (0.001 cents) and microcents (0.000001 cents). The time required for the computer to locate and transfer data to and from a storage medium is called the access time for that medi­um. Capacities range from a few hundred bytes of primary stor­age for very small computers to many billions of bytes of archi­val storage for very large computer systems.

Memories may be classified as electronic or electromechani­cal. Electronic memories have no moving mechanical parts, and data can be transferred into and out of them at very high speeds. Electromechanical memories depend upon moving mechanical parts for their operation, such as mechanisms for rotating mag­netic tapes and disks. Their data access time is longer than is that of electronic memories; however they cost less per bit stored and have larger capacities for data storage. For these reasons most computer systems use electronic memory for primary storage and electromechanical memory for secondary storage.

Primary storage has the least capacity and is the most expen­sive; however, it has the fastest access time. The principal pri­mary storage circuit elements are solid-state devices: magnetic cores and semiconductors. For many years magnetic cores were the principal elements used in digital computers for primary storage. The two principal types of semiconductors used for memory are bipolar and metal-oxide semiconductors (MOS). The former is faster, the latter is more commonly used at present. Because data can be accessed randomly, semiconduc­tor memories are referred to as random-access memory, or RAM.

There is a wide range of secondary storage devices. Typical hardware devices are rotating electromechanical devices. Mag­netic tapes, disks, and drums are the secondary storage hardware most often used in computer systems for sequential processing. Magnetic tape, which was invented by the Germans during World War II for sound recording, is the oldest secondary stor­age medium in common use. Data are recorded in the form of small magnetized "dots" that can be arranged to represent coded patterns of bits.

Tape devices range from large-capacity, high-data-rate units used with large data processing systems to cassettes and cartridges used with small systems. Magnetic disk storage, introduced in the early 1960s, has replaced magnetic tape as the main meth­od of secondary storage. As contrasted with magnetic tapes, magnetic discs can perform both sequential and random pro­cessing. They are classified as moving-head, fixed-head, or com­bination moving-head and fixed-head devices. Magnetic discs are the predominant secondary storage media. They include flexible, or floppy discs, called diskettes. The "floppies" were introduced by IBM in 1972 and are still a popular storage me­dium to meet the demands of the microcomputer market.

Exercise 1. Find the word combinations in the text.

Запоминающие устройства; носители памяти; первич­ные ЗУ; вторичные ЗУ; время доступа; стоимость ЗУ; диа­пазон емкости памяти; архивная память; движущиеся ме­ханические части; вращающиеся магнитные ленты и диски; по этим причинам; твердотельные устройства; маг­нитные сердечники; полупроводники; оперативное ЗУ; аппаратное обеспечение вторичной памяти; звукозапись; намагниченные точки; представлять зашифрованную ком­бинацию единиц информации; в отличие от магнитных лент; последовательная и произвольная обработка; устрой­ства с движущейся и фиксированной головкой; удовлет­ворять потребности; гибкий диск.

Exercise 2.Answer the questions on the text.

1. How are storage media classified?

2. How is the cost of storage devices expressed?

3. What is the access time for stor­age media?

4. How does the storage capacity range?

5. What are the two main types of storage devices?

6. What are electronic storage devices?

7. What are the principal primary storage cir­cuit elements?

8. What are the main secondary storage devic­es?

9. What is the oldest secondary medium and when was it invented?

10. What is a floppy?

Exercise 3. Translate the sentences with he Participle 1 and Participle 2 into Russian.









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