Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks.
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Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks.



1. Like NT, … is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse.

2. … is the most commonly used operating systems.

3. … is a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system

4. … is an operating system developed by Microsoft, an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows 3.0, 3.1 programs.

5. The usage of … and … is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly.

Exercise 3. Answer general understanding questions.

1. What problems faced programmers in the 1940s’ and 1950s’?

2. Why were first programs complex and time-consuming?

3. What are the basic functions of operating systems?

4. What does “DOS” abbreviation mean?

5. What company developed the first version of DOS operating systems and for what purpose?

6. Was the new operating system successful?

7. What is the difference between PC-DOS and MS-DOS?

8. What does the abbreviation NT stand for?

9. Is NT DOS - compatible?

10. What are the basic requirements for NT?

11. Who is the developer of OS \ 2?

12. What makes UNIX so different from the other operating systems?

13. What are the remarkable features of Windows – 95?

Exercise 4. True or false? Give your arguments.

1. When computers were first introduced in 1940s and 1950s, programmers had to write programs to instruct CD – ROMs, laser printers and scanners.

2. The operating system control s and manages the use of the hardware and the memory usage.

3. There are no commands available in operating systems, only word processors.

4. Microsoft developed MS – DOS to compete with IBM’s PC DOS.

5. NT requires computers with 486 CPU and 16 M random access memory.

6. OS\2 is DOS compatible because it was developed by Microsoft.

7. Traditionally, UNIX was run by many users simultaneously.

8. Windows 95 and Windows 98 are DOS compatible and have very “friendly” and convenient interface.

Exercise 5. Translate into English, using the active vocabulary of the text.

1. Современные операционные системы контролируют использование системного оборудования, например принтера и сканера. 2. С точки зрения пользователя, операционные системы PC - DOS и MS – DOS идентичны, с равными возможностями и набором системных команд. 3. OS\2 – DOS совместимая операционная система, позволяющая запускать программы при помощи графического интерфейса пользователя. 4. Дополнительные программы для работы с устройствами системного оборудования были очень сложны и поглощали много времени. 5. DOS – наиболее распространенная операционная система для персонального компьютера.


 

Unit 4

Data Processing and Computer Systems

 

Before reading text 1 learn these terms

data processing — обработка информа­ции

to convert— преобразовывать; переводить (в др. единицы)

to accomplish —завершать, заканчивать; осу­ществлять, выполнять

to house — помещать, размещать

to improve — улучшать, совершенствовать

to control — управлять, регулировать;

to store — хранить, запоминать, заносить

storage — запоминающее устройство, память; хранение

resource — ресурс; средство; возможность

facility – устройство, средство

facilities – возможности, приспособления

equipment – оборудование, аппаратура

available – доступный, возможный, имеющийся

display – дисплей, показ, устройство отображения

manner – способ, образ (действия)

sequence - последовательность

successively - последовательно

data storage hierarchy – последовательность запоминания данных

to enter — входить; вводить (данные); заносить, записывать

comprehensive groupings — полные, обширные, универ­сальные образования

meaningful — имеющий смысл; значащий (о данных)

item — элемент; составная часть

record — запись, регистрация; записывать, ре­гистрировать

file — файл; заносить (хранить) в файл

set — набор; множество; совокупность; серия; группа; система

data base — база данных

related — смежный; взаимосвязанный; относя­щийся (к ч.-л.)

 

Text 1. Data Processing and Data processing Systems.

 

The necessary data are processed by a computer to become useful information. In fact this is the definition of data process­ing. Data are a collection of facts — unorganized but able to be organized into useful information. Processing is a series of ac­tions or operations that convert inputs into outputs. When we speak of data processing, the input is data, and the output is useful information. So, we can define data processing as a se­ries of actions or operations that converts data into useful in­formation.

We use the term data processing system to include the resourc­es that are used to accomplish the processing of data. There are four types of resources: people, materials, facilities, and equip­ment. People provide input to computers, operate them, and use their output. Materials, such as boxes of paper and printer rib­bons, are consumed in great quantity. Facilities are required to house the computer equipment, people and materials.

The need for converting facts into useful information is not I phenomenon of modern life. Throughout history, and even prehistory, people have found it necessary to sort data into forms that were easier to understand. For example, the ancient Egyptians recorded the ebb and flow of the Nile River and used this information to predict yearly crop yields. Today computers convert data about land and water into recommendations to farmers on crop planting. Mechanical aids to computation were de­veloped and improved upon in Europe, Asia, and America throughout the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centu­ries. Modern computers are marvels of an electronics technol­ogy that continues to produce smaller, cheaper, and more pow­erful components.

Basic data processing operations

Five basic operations are characteristic of all data process­ing systems: inputting, storing, processing, outputting, and con­trolling. They are defined as follows.

Inputting is the process of entering data, which are collected facts, into a data processing system. Storing is saving data or information so that they are available for initial or for additional processing. Processing represents performing arithmetic or log­ical operations on data in order to convert them into useful in­formation. Outputting is the process of producing useful infor­mation, such as a printed report or visual display.

Controlling is directing the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed.

Data storage hierarchy

It is known that data, once entered, are organized and stored in successively more comprehensive groupings. Generally, these groupings are called a data storage hierarchy. The general group­ings of any data storage hierarchy are as follows.

1) Characters, which are all written language symbols: let­ters, numbers, and special symbols. 2) Data elements, which are meaningful collections of related characters. Data elements are also called data items or fields. 3) Records, which are collections of related data elements. 4) Files, which are collections of re­lated records. A set of related files is called a data base or a data bank.

 

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English for:

Системы обработки информации; определение (терми­на) обработки данных; совокупность фактов; последова­тельность действий; преобразование входных данных в полезную информацию; включать ресурсы; завершить об­работку данных; обеспечивать ввод информации в компь­ютер; ленты принтера; расходовать в большом количестве; размещать компьютерное оборудование; нуждаться (тре­бовать) в приспособлениях; явление современной жизни; на протяжении доисторического периода; превращать ин­формацию в выражения; регистрировать отливы и прили­вы; прогнозировать урожай зерновых культур; механические средства вычисления; ввод данных; хранение данных; первоначальная обработка данных; дополнительная обра­ботка; выдача полезной информации; напечатанное сооб­щение; зрительное отображение; последовательность запо­минания информации; записанные символы языка; элементы информации; база данных; набор взаимосвязан­ных файлов.

Exercise 2.Look at the text once more and answer the questions.

1. What is processing? 2. What is data processing? 3. What does the term of data processing system mean? 4. What basic operations does a data processing system include? 5. What is inputting / storing / outputting information? 6. What do you understand by resources? 7. How did ancient Egyptians convert facts into useful information? 8. When were mechanical aids for computation developed? 9. What does data storage hierarchy mean? 10. What are the general groupings of any data storage hierarchy?

Exercise 3.Translate the following word combinations. Mind the word order.

1. Data resource; storage resource; network resource; security resource; system resource.

2. Communication facilities; data base facilities; display facil­ities; management facilities.

3. Distance control; device control; keyboard control; position control; program control.

4. Computer storage; laser storage; file storage; disk storage; data storage hierarchy.

5. Character sequence; instruction sequence; message se­quence; pulse sequence.

6. Batch file; catalog file; data file; help file; input file; output file; menu file; user file.

7. Command input; data input; disk input; file input; keyboard input; program input.

Exercise 4.Match the right and the left columns.

1.Computer a) the set of instructions that direct

the operations of computers;

2. Computer literacy b) a part of a computer, entering

data into the device;

3. A program c) facts unorganized but able t6 be

organized;

4. Data d) the output of a data processing

system;

5. Data processing e) possessing sufficient knowledge of how computers work and what they can

do to use them as problem-solving tools;
6. Data processing f) a series of operations that results

in the conversion of data system into useful information;

7. Input g) an electronic device performing

calculations on numerical data;

8. Output h) an electronic device accepting

the data processing results from the computer and displaying them;

9. Useful information i) a set of related files;

10. Data bank j) the resources required to accomplish the processing of data.

These resources are personnel, material, facilities and equip­ment.

Exercise 7. Analyze the forms of verbs and translate the sentences properly.

1. Data are processed to become useful information. 2. We use the term data processing to include the resources applied for processing of information. 3. Resources required for accom­plishing the processing of data are called data processing sys­tem. 4. Processing is a series of operations converting inputs into outputs. 5. Facilities are required to house the computer equip­ment. 6. Egyptians used the information to predict crop yields. 7. Information to be put into the computer for processing should be coded into ones and zeroes. 8. Processing is operations on data to convert them into useful information. 9. The first machines designed to manipulate punched card data were widely used for business data processing. 10. Hollerith built one machine to punch the holes and the other to tabulate the collected data.

 









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