Before reading text 4, learn these words.
Лекции.ИНФО


Before reading text 4, learn these words.



central processing unit (CPU) — центральный процессор (ЦП)

interchangeably — взаимозаменяемым образом

precisely — точно

internal memory — внутренняя память; внутреннее ЗУ

activity — деятельность; работа; действия опе­рации

to issue — посылать (сигнал); выводить, выдавать (сообщение)

response — ответ; отклик; реакция; отвечать; реагировать

to interprete — интерпретировать; истолковы­вать;

according to — согласно; в соответствии с

level — уровень; степень; мера; выравнивать

input-output port — порт ввода-вывода

control unit (CU) — устройство управ­ления

arithmetic-logical unit (ALU) — арифметико-логическое устройство

switch — переключатель; коммутатор; переклю­чать; переходить

direct — направлять; адресовать; указывать; прямой; непосредственный

step-by-step operations — пошаговые операции

to select — выбирать; выделять (на экране)

on the other hand — с другой стороны

exponentiation — возведение в степень

 

Text 4. Central Processing Unit.

 

It is well known in computer science that the words 'com­puter' and 'processor' are used interchangeably. Speaking more precisely, 'computer' refers to the central processing unit (CPU) together with an internal memory. The internal memory, con­trol and processing components make up the heart of the com­puter system. Manufactures design the CPU to control and carry out basic instructions for their particular computer.

The CPU coordinates all the activities of the various com­ponents of the computer. It determines which operations should be carried out and in what order. The CPU controls the operation of the entire system by issueing commands to other parts of the system and by acting on responses. When required it reads information from the memory, interprets instructions, performs operations on the data according to the instructions, writes the results back into the memory and moves information between memory levels or through the input-output ports.

In digital computers the CPU can be divided into two func­tional units called the control unit (CU) and the arithmetic-log­ical unit (ALU). These two units are made up of electronic cir­cuits with millions of switches that can be in one of two states, either on or off.

The function of the CU within the central processor is to transmit coordinating control signals and commands. The control unit is that part of the computer that directs the sequence of step-by-step operations of the system, selects instructions and data from memory, interprets the program instructions, and controls the flow between main storage and the arithmetic-log­ical unit.

The ALU, on the other hand, is that part of the computer in which the actual arithmetic operations, namely, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation, called for in the instructions are performed.

Programs and the data on which the CU and the ALU op­erate, must be in internal memory in order to be processed. Thus, if located in secondary memory devices, such as disks or tapes, programs and data are first loaded into internal memory.

Exercise 1. Find in the text the following words and phrases.

Хорошо известно; к компьютеру относятся; внутренняя память - internal memory; составлять суть - make up the heart; выполнять; координировать дея­тельность; определяя в каком порядке; управлять работой всей системы; при необходимости; в соответствии с ко­мандами; уровни памяти; порт ввода-вывода; переключа­тели; режим включения или выключения; передавать сиг­налы; указывать последовательность пошаговых операций; основная память; управлять ходом выполнения программы; с другой стороны; выполнять вычитание, сложение, воз­ведение в степень, деление, умножение; для того чтобы.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions on the text.

1. What words in computer science are used interchangeably and why?

2. What components make up the heart of the com­puter system.

3. What is the function of the CPU?

4. In what way does the CPU control the operation of the whole system?

5. Name the sequence of operations the CPU performs (use five verbs).

6. What are the CPU functional units made of?

7. What is the function of the CU?

8. What operations are performed in the ALU?

9. Where are data processed?

10. Where are data to be processed loaded into?

Exercise 3. Translate the phrases with the key words.

Direction: backward direction; clockwise direction; counter­clockwise direction; data direction; forward direction; inverse / reverse direction; negative direction; positive direction; print­ing direction; transmission direction.

Level: access level; application level; data level; device level; difficulty level; error level; function level; hardware level; high level; input level; output level; performance level; presentation level; program level; protection level; resource level; security level; software level; structural level; system level; transmisson level.

Processor: arithmetic processor; central processor; command processor; control processor; data processor; error processor; general-purpose processor; special-purpose processor; image processor; language processor; mail processor; message proces­sor; numeric processor; parallel processor; peripheral processor; text processor.

Switch: to switch between programs; to switch between win­dows; to switch disks; to switch on; to switch off; to switch over; binary switch; command switch.

Step: conversion step; final step; procedure step; program step; programming step; step by step; one step at a time; to step down; to step out; to step up; to take steps.

Exercise 3. Translate the sentences with the participial construction

1. Data being accessed randomly, semiconductor memories are called random access memory (RAM).

2. The information capacity of a single bit being limited to two alternatives, codes are based on combination of bits.

3. Primary storage having similarity to a junction of the human brain, the storage is also called mem­ory.

4. An electron leaving the surface, the metal becomes pos­itively charged.

5. Computer system architecture being organized around the primary storage unit, all instructions must pass through it.

6. Computer system architecture is organized around the primary storage unit, all instructions passing through it.

7. Electromechanical memories depend upon moving mechanical parts, their data access time being longer than is that of elec­tronic memories.

8. For this reason most computer systems use electronic memory for primary storage, electromechanical mem­ory being used for secondary storage.

9. Large capacity tape de­vices are used with large data processing systems, cassettes and cartridges being applied with small systems.

10. The CPU con­trols the operation of the entire system, commands being issued to other parts of the system.

Learn these words before reading text 5.

to manage — управлять; организовывать; справляться

to obtain — получать; достигать; добиваться

to cause — заставлять; вынуждать; вызывать; быть при­чиной; причина, основание

flow — поток; ход (выполнения программы); пос­ледовательность

counter — счетчик

register — регистр; устройство регистрации; счетчик; датчик

instruction register — регистр команд

storage register — регистр памяти; запоминающий ре­гистр

address register — адресный регистр

temporarily — временно

decoder — дешифратор

operand address — адрес (хранения) опе­ранда

mark — отметка; маркер; знак; помечать; обозна­чать; выделять

timing mark — отметка времени

accumulate — накапливать(ся); суммиро­вать; собирать(ся)

accumulator — сумматор; накапливающий регистр; ус­тройство суммирования

compare — сравнивать; соотноситься

comparer — компаратор; устройство сравне­ния

content — содержимое; смысл; объем; количе­ство

involve — включать; содержать; заключать (в себе)

core — суть; основная часть; ядро; оперативная память

add — складывать; суммировать; прибавлять; при­соединять

added — добавочный; дополнительный

adder — сумматор; блок суммирования

at least — по крайней мере

 









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