Learn the terms from text 2.
word processing — обработка текста
telephone dialing — набор номера телефона
security — безопасность; охрана
appliance — устройство; прибор
maintenance— поддержание; сохранение; эксплуатация
application software — прикладные программы
to delete — удалять; стирать; очищать память
to move paragraphs around — менять местами абзацы
accountant — бухгалтер
accounting — бухгалтерский учет
income tax — подоходный налог
stock market forecasting — биржевые прогнозы
worksheet — электронная таблица
scheduling — составление расписания, графика
computer-assisted instructions — компьютерные команды
to meet the demands — удовлетворять потребности
record keeping — регистрация; ведение записей
grading — оценивание; классификация
Text 2. Application of Personal Computers
Personal computers have a lot of applications, however, there are some major categories of applications: home and hobby, word processing, professional, educational, small business and engineering and scientific.
Home and hobby. Personal computers enjoy great popularity among experimenters and hobbyists. They are an exciting hobby. All hobbyists need not be engineers or programmers. There are many games that use the full capabilities of a computer to provide many hours of exciting leisure-time adventure.
The list of other home and hobby applications of PCs is almost endless, including: checking account management, budgeting, personal finance, planning, investment analyses, telephone answering and dialing, home security, home environment and climate control, appliance control, calendar management, maintenance of address and mailing lists and what not.
Word processing. At home or at work, applications software, called a word processing program, enables you to correct or modify any document in any manner you wish before printing it. Using the CRT monitor as a display screen, you are able to view what you have typed to correct mistakes in spelling or grammar, add or delete sentences, move paragraphs around, and replace words. The letter or document can be stored on a diskette for future use.
Professional. The category of professional includes persons making extensive use of word processing, whose occupations are particularly suited to the desk-top use of PCs. Examples of other occupations are accountants, financial advisors, stock brokers, tax consultants, lawyers, architects, engineers, educators and all levels of managers. Applications programs that are popular with persons in these occupations include accounting, income tax preparation, statistical analysis, graphics, stock market forecasting and computer modeling. The electronic worksheet is, by far, the computer modeling program most widely used by professionals. It can be used for scheduling, planning, and the examination of "what if situations.
Educational. Personal computers are having and will continue to have a profound influence upon the classroom, affecting both the learner and the teacher. Microcomputers are making their way into classrooms to an ever-increasing extent, giving impetus to the design of programmed learning materials that can meet the demands of student and teacher.
Two important types of uses for personal computers in education are computer-managed instruction (CMI), and computer-assisted instruction (CAI). CMI software is used to assist the instructor in the management of all classroom-related activities, such as record keeping, work assignments, testing, and grading. Applications of CAI include mathematics, reading, typing, computer literacy, programming languages, and simulations of real-world situations
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English for:
Много областей применения; тем не менее; обработка текстов; пользоваться популярностью; любители; способности компьютера; бесконечный перечень; анализ инвестиций; набор номера телефона; автоответчик; ведение календаря; хранение адресов и почты; и так далее; прикладные программы; исправлять ошибки в написании; стирать предложения; переставлять абзацы; бухгалтер; биржевые брокеры; консультант по налогам; юристы; работники образования; управленцы; бухгалтерский учет; подоходный налог; компьютерное моделирование; электронные таблицы; составление расписания; оказывать огромное влияние; прокладывать путь; дать толчок; удовлетворять потребности; учебная деятельность; компьютерная грамотность; моделирование реально-жизненных ситуаций.
Exercise 2. Find in text 1 and 2:
a) synonyms to:
Verbs: to print; to produce; to convert; to keep; to found; to erase; to name; to change; to use; to start; to switch on; to supply; to give possibility; to involve.
Nouns: rate; analyst; possibilities; use; plays; control; post; mode; profession; consultant; teacher; director; book-keeper; fight; producer; attack; amateur; device; crystal; error; storage; primary (memory); monitor; characteristic; aim.
Adjectives: flexible; thrilling; main; little; general.
b) antonyms to:
Verbs:to finish; to switch on; to take; to delete.
Adjectives: cheep; weak; common; general; large; soft; high; easy.
Exercise 3. Decode the following abbreviations:
PC; PU; CU; ALU; CPU; MPU; IBM; DOS; CRT; ROM; RAM; 1С; SSI; MSI; LSI; VLSI; MP; CD; I/O; IOP; CMI; CAI.
Exercise 4. Answer the questions on text 2.
1. What are the main spheres of PC application?
2. Do you enjoy computer games?
3. Is it necessary for a person to be an analyst or a programmer to play computer games?
4. What other home and hobby applications, except computer games, can you name?
5. What is "a word processing program"?
6. What possibilities can it give you?
7. Can you correct mistakes while typing any material and how?
8. What other changes in the typed text can you make using a display?
9. Which professions are in great need of computers?
10. How can computers be used in education?
Exercise 5. Find in text 2 sentences with Passive Voice and turn them into Active voice.
Text 3. A Modem
The piece of equipment that allows a computer to communicate with other computers over telephone lines is called a modem. The modem allows the individual to access information from all over the world and use that information in everyday life. Connecting with banks, Automatic Teller Machines, cash registers to read credit cards, access travel agents, buy products, e-mail, access databases, and teleconferencing, the modems provide easy access to many services. Files can be transferred easily, by uploading to another machine, or downloading to your own machine within a matter of minutes. The computer modem can be used as a telephone answering system, and documents can be faxed from one computer to another assuring fast and easy access to important documents.
A modem takes computer information and changes it into a signal that can be sent over telephone lines. The modem is a bridge between digital and analog signals. The computer is of the digital type, and the telephone using analog technology. The modem converts the "0"s and "l"s of the computer (off-on switches) into an analog signals modulating the frequency of the electronic wave or signal. The modem does just the opposite and demodulate the signal back into digital code. The modem gets its name from MOdulate and the DEModulate.
Most people believe that you need a separate phone line for a modem, but that is not true. Your modem and telephone can share one line, the problem arises when someone else needs to use the telephone while the modem is in use.
There are three kinds of modems — internal, external, and fax. All modems do the same thing, they allow computers to communicate through telephone lines. This lets computers exchange information everywhere. Internal Modem is a circuit board that plugs into one of the expansion slots of the computer. Internal modems usually are cheaper than external modems, but when problems occur, fixing and troubleshooting the modem can sometimes prove to be quite difficult. External Modem attaches to the back of the computer by way of a cable that plugs into the modem port. It is usually less expensive and very portable. It can be used with other computers very easily by unplugging it and plugging it into another computer. Fax Modem can be hooked up to your telephone and used to send information to your computer. Your computer can also send information to a fax machine. Most computer modems are modems with faxing capabilities.
Exercise 1. Find in the text the English for:
Оборудование, получать информацию, соединять, кассовый регистратор, легкий доступ, передавать, загрузка, автоответчик, мост, цифровой сигнал, аналоговая технология, частота, электронные волны, отдельная телефонная линия, внутренний модем, внешний модем, цепь, слот расширения, присоединять, отключать, возможности.
Exercise 2. Insert proper words or phrases.
1. Most computer modems are modems with faxing ……. .
2. The piece of ……. that allows a computer to ……. with other computers over telephone lines is called a modem.
3. Files can be ….. easily, by ….. to another machine, or ….. to your own machine.
4. There are three kinds of modems — ….., …… and fax.
5. The modem is a ….. between ….. and analog signals.
6. Internal Modemis a ….. board that plugs into one of the ….. …… of the computer.
7. The computer modem can be used as a telephone….. …… .
8. External Modem……. to the back of the computer by way of a cable that ……. into the modem port.
9. Documents can be faxed from one computer to another assuring fast and easy ….. to important documents.
Exercise 3. Answer the questions.
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