Лекции.ИНФО


II. Find the English words and word-combinations in the text



corresponding to the following Russian equivalents:

мой родной город, небольшой сибирский город;

в красивом пригороде, расположен в красивом пригороде;

студент-первокурсник;

учиться заочно, учиться, чтобы стать экономистом;


 

- 7 -

 

квалифицированный программист;

серьезно чем-то заняться;

его работа хорошо оплачивается.

III. Complete the following sentences:

1. I am from...

2. I am a...

3. I am fond of...

4. I am studying to become...

5. I was born...

6. This town is situated...

7. I'd like to specialize in...

8. It takes me a lot of time to...

9. She looks after...

10. He enjoys...

11. She manages the house very well because she...

12. He is an experienced...

13. My sister's main interest is...

14. He is keenly interested in...

15. She does a correspondence course at the...

16. He has a degree in...

17. He is very good at...

IV. Translate into English:

1. Он родился в Сибири, в крупном промышленном центре.

2. Они живут в небольшом городке, расположенном на большой реке.

3. Он бы хотел стать высоко-квалифицированным программистом

(highly-qualified).

4. Она учится заочно на факультете экономики.

5. Она решила серьезно заняться экономикой.

6. Она - студентка первого курса.

7. Он - студент второго курса.

8. Наши родители хотели бы, чтобы мы получили хорошее

образование.

9. Наши родители намерены дать своим детям хорошее образование.

10. Он очень честный и ответственный человек.

11. У меня уходит много времени на подготовку к занятиям.

12. Мы серьезно решили заняться спортом, чтобы быть в хорошей форме.

13. Легкий бег (jogging) - прекрасный вид физической подготовки.

14. Очень важно заботиться о здоровье.


 

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V. Make up your own sentences with the following

word-combinations:

to be situated, to get (receive) a good education, to be

from (come from), to get serious about, to be born, to deal with,

to be responsible, to be at the head of, I'd like to..., to be

keenly interested in, in my spare time, to specialize in, to look

after, it takes a lot of time, to be retired, to take classes

(courses), to be experienced, an independent sort of person,

to graduate from.

VI. Answer the following questions:

1. What country is Victor from?

2. Where was he born?

3. Is his native town situated in a large industrial centre?

4. How many people are there in his family?

5. Where does Victor study?

6. What would he like to be in future?

7. In what field is he going to specialize?

8. What do his parents do?

9. What does Victor like doing in his spare time?

10. What sort of person is his father?

11. What sort of person is his mother?

12. What are his sister and her husband?

VII. Practice the dialogue:

- Hello Ann. How are you?

- Everything's all right, Nina. I hear you've become a

medical student?

- Yes, that's true. And, how are you getting on with your

studies at the Academy?

- I'm happy that I'm a student of the faculty of economics.

I was very good at mathematics at school, that's why it's

not difficult for me to study economics.

- Would you like to go to the concert?

- I'm sorry, I'm afraid I shan't be able to keep you a

company. I've been so ill lately. May be in a couple of

weeks.

- O.K. Agreed. Bye.

- Bye-bye.


 

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OUR ACADEMY

 

Word list

to graduate from заканчивать учебное заведение

test зачет, контрольная работа

term (semester) семестр

training course курс обучения

to enter (the Institute,Academy) поступать (в институт,

учебное заведение)

experience навыки, опыт

in accordance with в соответствии с

entrance requirements требования на вступит.экзаменах

to take an exam (in) сдавать экзамен (по)

to pass an exam (in) сдать экзамен (по)

correspondence department заочное отделение

preliminary department подготовительное отделение

department отделение, кафедра

post-graduate course аспирантура

to do one's best делать все возможное

research worker научный сотрудник

to guide руководить, направлять

degree степень (зд.ученая)

activity деятельность

national economy народное хозяйство

youth молодежь

workshop мастерская

well-equipped хорошо оборудованный

grant, scholarship стипендия

vacation, holidays каникулы

final project дипломная работа

to borrow the books from the брать книги в библиотеке

library

curriculum учебная программа

оpportunity возможность

well-stocked хорошо укомплектованный

career профессия, занятие

 


 

- 10 -

 

Text

 

The doors of our higher educational establishments are open

to all who wish to continue their study after graduating from

secondary schools.

The Siberian State Academy of Geodesy was founded in 1932 in

Omsk but a year later it was moved to Novosibirsk. And now it is

one of the two geodetic institutes in our country which trains

highly qualified specialists.

The majority of our students enter the Academy after

graduating from secondary schools, but some of them have some

experience in the chosen career.

In accordance with the entrance requirements applicants

should take exams in Mathematics and Russian. If they pass them

successfully they become first-year students.

In our Academy there are evening, correspondence and

preliminary departments. The present day Academy includes four

Institutes: Cadastre and Geographic Information Systems, Optics

and Optical Technologies, Geodesy and Management and

Aerophotogeodesy. We have a post-graduate course as well. So the

best graduates may continue their studies and carry on research

work in well-equipped laboratories. Research workers of our

Academy guide students scientific societies. Many of our

scientists have candidate's and doctor's degrees.

Thus, our students have a wide choice of jobs opportunities,

they may work in different fields of national economy or research

institutes.

The training course at the Academy lasts 5 or 6 years. There

are two terms in each academic year and at the end of each term

the students take tests and exams.

The state grant is distributed among those students who have

good exam results. When the exams are over the students have

their vacation, winter and summer. At the end of the fourth year

students are sent for a few months to a plant or research

institute in order to get some practical experience in business.

The whole training course is followed by a final project. After

graduating from the Academy students become engineers in their

chosen field.


 

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In accordance with the curriculum students are to study

different general sciences such as History of Russia,

Mathematics, Physics, Foreign Languages, etc. In the third and

forth years of their program students are taught special subjects

which are necessary for the given profession.

At our Academy there are many study aids: a well-stocked

library where students can borrow any books they need, a large

reading room, well-equipped laboratories, a number of workshops

for practical training, lecture rooms, hostels, a large

refectory, sports ground and a gym. Sport plays a very important

role in the life of the youth and students of our Academy go in

for sports.

Our country needs highly-qualified and educated specialists

in Geodesy, Photogrammetry, Optics, GIS and Cadastre.

 

Exercises

 

1. Pronounce words and word combinations:

highly-qualified, to graduate from, entrance requirements,

correspondence, preliminary, guide, grant, curriculum,

opportunity, well-equipped, youth, refectory.

2. Translate into Russian:

a) post-graduate, vacation, youth, faculty, experience, to

graduate from, activity, grant, refectory, department, test,

applicant, opportunity, term.

b) well-stocked library, entrance requirement, national

economy, higher educational establishment, training course, to

take an active part in, final project, preliminary department, to

do one's best, scientific society, to take an exam, to pass an

exam.

3. Translate into English:

a) закончить (вуз), навыки, факультет, аспирантура,

деятельность, семестр, зачет, стипендия, каникулы, возможность,

молодежь, кафедра;

b) Сибирская Государственная Геодезическая Академия, высшее

учебное заведение, требования на вступительных экзаменах, сдавать

экзамен, сдать экзамен, подготовительное отделение, народное

хозяйство, курс обучения, дипломная работа, принимать активное

участие, делать все возможное, библиотека с богатым книжным

фондом, научное общество.


 

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4. Fill in the blanks with prepositions:

1. My brother graduated ... the University last year.

2. Today we are going to pass an exam ... Philosophy.

3. In accordance ... the plan we are to do this work.

4. At the end of the fourth year students are sent ... a plant to

get some experience ... the business.

5. The graduates carry ... research work ... well equipped

laboratories.

6. He is a student ... the Siberian State Academy ... Geodesy.

7. There are two terms ... each academic year and ... the end ...

each term students take exams and tests.

5. Answer the questions:

1. What are you?

2. Where do you study?

3. When was the Academy founded?

4. Are there many geodetic institutes in our country?

5. What exams must applicants pass to enter the Academy?

6. What does the present day Academy include?

7. How long does the training course last?

8. When do the students take their tests and exams?

9. Who usually gets a scholarship?

10. What is the whole training course followed by?

11. What subjects do the students study?

12. What facilities are there in the Academy?

6. Translate from Russian into English:

1 Я студент Сибирской государственной геодезической академии.

2. Академия была основана в 1932 г.

3. Чтобы поступить в Академию, необходимо сдать экзамен по

математике и русскому языку.

4. В настоящее время Академия включает в себя Институт геодезии и

менеджмента, Институт кадастра и геоинформационных систем,

Институт оптики и оптических технологий, Институт фотограмметрии

и дистанционного зондирования.

5. В конце каждого семестра студенты сдают экзамены и зачеты.

6. Курс обучения в Академии 5-6 лет.

7. Студенты, успешно сдавшие экзамены, получают стипендию.

8. Полный курс обучения завершается дипломной работой.

9. Студенты первого и второго курсов изучают общеобразовательные

предметы, а студенты старших курсов - специальные предметы.


 

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ASTROGEODESY

 

Word list

to deal with иметь дело с

astrogeodesy (geodetic astro- астрономогеодезия

nomy, field astronomy)

determination of position определение координат точек,

местоположения

determination of azimuth определение азимута

aster светило

astronomical fixation астрономическое определение

(A.E. astrofix)

to determine coordinates определять координаты

to determine latitude, определять широту, долготу,

longitude, azimuth азимут

astronomical point астрономический пункт

Laplace point (station) пункт Лапласа

initial data исходные данные

orientation of the state ориентирование государственной

geodetic network геодезической сети

grade measurements градусные измерения

figure-of-the earth study изучение формы Земли

remote regions удаленные районы

poor geodetic network слаборазвитая геодезическая

provision сеть

to recover geodetic control восстанaвливать пункты

points геодезической сети

to detect an angle определить угол

bearing angle дирекционный угол

space exploration космические исследования

spatiаl triangulation пространственная

фототриангуляция

base adjustment разбивка базиса

to fix coordinates определять координаты

artificial satellite искусственный спутник Земли (ИСЗ)

reference point опорная точка, репер

applied geodesy прикладная геодезия

geodetic coverage геодезическое обеспечение


 

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Text

 

Astrogeodesy is the part of astronomy which deals with

determination of azimuths and positions on the earth's surface

based on observation of asters. This section of astronomy is very

important for solving economic and practical tasks of geodesy.

Astronomical fixations (astrofixes) are inseparable from

surveying and mapping. They are used to determine coordinates of

different points on the earth's surface as well as their latitude

and longitude. For this purposes it is necessary to know exact

local time at the moment of observation. Determination of azimuth

is very important for geodesy and cartography. The point with

coordinates determined by means of astronomical observations is

called an astronomical point (Laplace point). Laplace azimuths

are considered as geodetic azimuths of triangulation lines

determined by astrogeodetic observations.

Astrofixes together with geodetic and gravimetric

determinations provide initial geodetic data and orientation of

the state geodetic control network. They are useful for grade

measurements and figure-of-the earth study.

Star observations are an integral part of the geodetic

control network.

Not long ago astrofixes were necessary for topographical

surveys in the remote regions with a poor geodetic network

provision. Nowadays when the amount of large-scale surveys is

growing, many of the geodetic control points are being recovered.

To do this, bearing angles should be detected by astronomical

fixations.

Methods of astrogeodesy are utilized in space exploration

for base adjustment of spatial triangulation and for setting

astronomical coordinates of spatial triangulation points. The

methods may also be used to fix coordinates of artificial

satellites.

Astronomical observations make it possible to determine

positions of reference points on the earth's surface to be used

for topographical surveys.

Astronomical fixations of geographic coordinates and

azimuths are widely used in applied geodesy for geodetic coverage

of engineering works.


 

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Exercises

 

1. Find English equivalents in the text for the following

word combinations:

определение координат и азимутов из наблюдений светил;

раздел астрономии; решение экономических и практических задач;

неотъемлемая часть съемки; поверхность земли; чтобы определить

широту и долготу; необходимо знать; момент наблюдения; местное

время; астрономический пункт; геодезические и гравиметрические

определения; обеспечить исходные данные; главная геодезическая

сеть; фигура земли; объем крупномасштабных съемок возрастает;

восстанавливаются геодезические пункты; с помощью астрономических

наблюдений; методы геодезической астрономии; определять

координаты искусственных спутников Земли.

2. Answer the following questions:

1. What is astrogeodesy?

2. What is its significance?

3. What are the purposes of astrofixes?

4. What is necessary to set latitude, longitude and azimuth?

5. What is an astronomical point?

6. What data are provided by astrofixes?

7. Why were astronomical fixations necessary in remote regions?

8. How are bearing angles detected?

9. In what fields are the methods of astrogeodesy utilized?

10. What is important for geodetic coverage of engineering works?

3. Translate into English:

1. Астрономогеодезия включает в себя способы определения геоде-

зических координат и азимутов из наблюдений светил.

2. Астрономогеодезия изучает также приборы, с помощью которых

производятся астрономические определения.

3. Азимуты Лапласа - это геодезические азимуты сторон

триангуляции, полученные из астрономических наблюдений.

4. Азимуты Лапласа являются средством контроля измерений в астро-

номогеодезической сети.

5. Методы астрономогеодезии применяются в космических иссле-

дованиях и прикладной геодезии.


 

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OPTICS

 

Word list

genesis возникновение

propagation распространение

property свойство

data processing обработка данных

reflection отражение

refraction преломление

development достижение (зд.)

invention изобретение

frequency частота

retrieval поиск, извлечение (данных)

emergence появление

to govern регулировать, управлять

to involve влечь за собой, включать

to succeed удаваться

to derive вывести (зд.)

to resurrect восстановить; вернуться (зд.)

to emit испускать, излучать

to provide давать, обеспечивать

to usher in открывать

to attribute (to) приписывать, относить к чему-либо

compatible совместимый

minute мельчайший

discrete отдельный

coupled with в соединении с

appreciably заметно, ощутимо

 

Text

 

Optics is a science concerning with the genesis and

propagation of light, the changes that it undergoes and produces,

and other phenomena closely associated with it. There are two

major branches of optics: physical and geometrical. Physical

optics deals primarily with the nature and properties of light

itself. Geometrical optics has to do with the principles that

govern the image-forming properties of lenses, mirrors, and other


 

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devices that make use of light. It also includes optical data

processing, which involves the manipulation of the information

content of an image formed by coherent optical systems.

The ancient Greeks and Arabs had some knowledge of the

nature and properties of light. The foundations of the science of

optics, however, were not established until the 17th century.

During the early 1600s Galileo Galilei constructed the first

telescopes that could be employed for astronomical observation.

In the 1650s the French mathematician Pierre de Fermat succeeded

in deriving the law of refraction from a principle attributed to

the Greek geometer Hero of Alexandria (1st century AD), according

to which reflected light traverses the shortest distance between

two points compatible with meeting the reflecting surface. By the

end of the century the Dutch mathematician-physicist Christian

Huygens provided a mechanical explanation of reflection and

refraction in his (1690; Treatise on Light) related light to wave

motion. In 1704 Isaac Newton published his Optics.

Newton's views, especially his particle theory of light,

came to dominate scientific thought for more than a century,

completely overshadowing Huygens' contributions.

During the early 1800s Thomas Young, an English physician

and physicist, resurrected the wave theory of light. This

conception held sway among the next several generations of

investigators, including the British physicist James Clerk

Maxwell, whose electromagnetic theory of light (1864) is

generally considered the foremost achievement of classical

optics.

The groundwork for modern optics was laid by the

introduction of quantum theory at the turn of the century. The

theory, proposed in 1900 by Max Plank of Germany, explained that

radiant energy is emitted in discrete units, or quanta. In 1905

Albert Einstein extended this idea of light and demonstrated

that, in the photoelectric effect, light behaves as though all of

its energy were concentrated in minute particles later called

photons. Einstein's finding, coupled with the electromagnetic

theory, led to the present-day view that light behaves like waves

in certain situations and like particles in others.

Two major developments, the emergence of communication and


 

- 18 -

 

information theory in the 1950s and invention of the laser in the

early 1960s, ushered in a new era in optics.

 

Exercises

 

I. Guess the meaning of international words:

classical, theory, phenomenon, lens, associated with,

coherent, electromagnetic, to demonstrate, effect, photoelectric,

photon, quantum, communication, era, manipulation, holography,

process, complex, binary, to concentrate.

II. Give the Russian for:

wave motion, particle theory of light, image-forming

properties, wave theory of light, radiant energy, present-day

view, manipulation of content, give rise, significant advances,

highly directional, notable application, data storage.

III. Put in preposition where necessary:

1. Optics is concerned ... the genesis and propagation of light.

2. Physical optics deals ... the nature and properties of light

itself.

3. ... the end of the century. Christian Huygens provided ... a

mechanical explanation of reflection and refraction.

4. Two major developments ushered ... a new era in optics.

5. Geometrical optics has to do ... the principles that govern

... the image-forming properties ... devices that make use ...

light.

6. Newton's views came to dominate ... scientific thought ...

more than a century.

IV. Say the following in one word:

discrete energy units

minute light particles

light of a single frequency

a two-step coherent image-forming process

V. Answer the questions:

1. What is optics?

2. What are two major branches of optics?

3. When were the foundations of the science established?

4. Who succeeded in deriving the law of refraction?

5. When was a mechanical explanation of reflection and refraction

of light provided?


 

- 19 -

 

6. Whose views came to dominate scientific thought for more than

a century?

7. What theory is considered the foremost achievement of classical

optics?

8. When was the groundwork for modern optics laid?

9. What is Albert Einstein’s contribution in the present-day

view on light?

10. What developments ushered in a new era in optics?

VI. Give a short summary of the text using the questions

Beyond as a plan.

VII. Read and comment on the statements:

1. The laser provided an ideal tool for optical data processing

and communication.

2. The laser has proved to be a very efficient means of

transmitting audio and video information.

 

VIII. Translate the text using a dictionary:

The manipulation of the content of an image by means of

optical systems using coherent light (i.e., light of a single

frequency or colour in which all the components are in step with

each other) became a subject for serious study in the 1950s. The

laser provided an ideal tool for optical data processing and

communication. It gave rise to significant advances in

holography, a two-step coherent image-forming process in which an

intermediate record is made of the complex optical field

associated with an object. One of the more notable applications

of holography in the area of optical information processing is

binary data storage and retrieval.

The laser has proved to be a very efficient means of

transmitting audio and video information (e.g., telephone

conversations and television programs). It is superior to

ordinary electronic transmitters for several reasons. Because the

frequency of laser light is appreciably higher than that of radio

waves, for example, a laser beam can carry substantially more

information. Furthermore, since a laser beam is highly

directional, it is able to transmit information with very little

interference and over long distances.

 


 

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MANAGEMENT

 

Word list

managerial управленческий

in terms of с точки зрения

to be responsible for отвечать за что-либо

to carry out выполнять

decision решение

to supervise руководить

profit-making коммерческий, рентабельный

marketing management менеджмент маркетинга,

управление маркетингом

a concept понятие

to cover охватывать

sales продажи

consumer requirements изучение потребительского

research рынка, изучение потребителей

to look beyond заглядывать вперед

a long-term strategy долгосрочная стратегия

to evaluate оценивать

opportunities возможности

to select выбирать

objectives цели, задачи

sales volume объем продаж

market share доля рынка

profitability рентабельность, выгодность

innovation новшество

Product Life Cycle жизненный цикл товара

(продукта)

maturity зрелость, наступление срока

decline падение, снижение, спад

decision-making принятие решений

the demand for спрос на что-либо

to respond to отвечать

tools инструменты

advertizing реклама

trade shows выставка-продажа

pricing ценообразование


 

- 21 -

 

packaging упаковка, разработка упаковочных материа-

лов и контейнеров

mix ассортимент, номенклатура

marketing mix комплекс маркетинга; факторы маркетинга

компании (контролируемые компанией факто-

ры, которые могут повлиять на приобрете-

ние ее товаров потребителями)

 

Text

 

Management is a function of planning, organizing,

coordination, direction and controlling. Any managerial system,

at any managerial level, is characterized in terms of these

general functions.

The term "management" refers to those people who are

responsible for making and carrying out decisions within the

system.

An individual manager is a person who directly supervises

people in a profit-making organization. Some basic

characteristics seem to apply to managers in all types of

organization. They include hard work on a variety of specific

activities. For example, marketing management refers to a broad

concept covering organization of production and sales of

products, which is based on consumer requirements research. All

companies must look beyond their present situation and develop a

long-term strategy to meet changing conditions in their industry.

Marketing management, therefore, consists of evaluating market

opportunities, selecting markets, developing market strategies,

planning marketing tactics and controlling marketing results.

Strategic planning includes defining the company's long-term

and specific objectives, such as sales volume, market share,

profitability and innovation, and deciding on financial, material

and other resources necessary to achieve those objectives.

One of the key concepts in market selection and product

planning is that of the Product Life Cycle. It means that every

product passes through various stages between life and death:

introduction, growth, maturity, decline. A company should have a

mix of products with representation in each of these stages. When


 

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the concept of the Product Life Cycle is forgotten in marketing

planning, it leads to wrong decision-making.

Important changes in the demand for particular products and

services are continuously occuring. Management should respond to

such changes. To be successful it is necessary to understand and

learn how to use effective marketing tools.

Advertizing, trade shows, service activity, pricing and

packaging in combination produce sales, and are usually referred

to as a kind of "marketing mix". The objective of business is to

find a marketing mix which at a given point of time will prove to

be profitable.

 

Exercises

 

1. Pronounce correctly:

managerial, characterized, decisions, supervise, beyond,

profitability, financial, resources, key, cycle, through.

Read the English words and word combinations (A) and

choose the corresponding Russian equivalents (B):

А: a managerial system; in terms of; are responsible for

making and carrying out decisions; profit-making organization;

variety of specific activities; consumer requirements research; a

long-term strategy; evaluating market opportunities; sales

volume; profitability; financial and material resources; a key

concept; Profit Life Cycle; decline; mix of products;

advertizing; pricing; marketing mix.

B: с точки зрения; долгосрочная стратегия; отвечает за

принятие и выполнение решений; ключевое понятие; ценообразование;

оценка возможностей рынка; управленческая структура; объем

продаж; ассортимент товаров; жизненный цикл товара;

рентабельность; снижение; факторы маркетинга компании; финансовые

и материальные ресурсы; реклама; коммерческий; разнообразие

конкретных целей; изучение потребительского рынка.

3. Find in the text:

... широкое понятие, охватывающее; на любом управленческом

уровне; ... непосредственно руководит людьми; ... чтобы отвечать

изменяющимся условиям; ... необходимые для достижения этих целей;

... представленный в каждой из этих ступеней; важные изменения


 

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... постоянно происходят; чтобы добиться успеха ...; в данный

момент времени.

4. Answer the questions:

1. What is management?

2. Who does this term refer to?

3. What is an individual manager?

4. What does the term "marketing management" mean?

5. What does it consist of?

6. What does strategic planning include?

7. What does the term "Product Life Cycle" mean?

8. Why should any company have a mix of products?

9. What is "marketing mix"?

10. Is the objective of business to find a marketing mix?

5. Translate into English:

1. Любая управленческая система на любом уровне характеризуется

с точки зрения планирования, организации, координации и контроля.

2. Термин "менеджмент" относится к людям, ответственным за

принятие и выполнение решений.

3. Менеджер - это человек, который непосредственно управляет

людьми в коммерческой организации.

4. Менеджмент маркетинга (управление маркетингом) охватывает

организацию производства и продажи товаров, основанную на

изучение потребительского рынка.

5. Все компании должны разрабатывать долгосрочную стратегию,

чтобы отвечать меняющимся условиям в своей промышленности.

6. Стратегическое планирование включает определение долгосрочных

и конкретных задач.

7. Одно из ключевых понятий в менеджменте маркетинга - это

жизненный цикл товара.

8. Когда понятие жизненного цикла товара забывается - это ведет

к принятию неправильных решений.

9. Для достижения успеха необходимо знать, как использовать

эффективные инструменты маркетинга.

10. Комплекс маркетинга (факторы маркетинга компании) - это

совокупность рекламы, выставок, продаж, сервисной службы,

ценообразования и т.д.


 

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