Historical Background of Robots
Лекции.ИНФО


Historical Background of Robots



1. For years robots have been quite familiar figures in our minds in the form of mechanical-driven dolls, or the heroes in children's cartoons who exhibit superhuman qualities. However, the image of industrial robot used in manufacturing processes is far different from such. Among industrial robots, there are different types ranging from hand-operated "magic hands" to others equipped with intelligent faculties by incorporating micro-computers. Hence, there is no clear-cut definition1 for industrial robots. In general, however, the robots which we refer to as such include (1) those that display a complex motion with a high degree of freedom just like an arm or a hand and (2) those that are equipped with cognitive and such sensory functions, as sight, and tactual sense, and are capable of acting independently.

2. Robots can be considered as substitutes for men, and they must possess the functions not only of hands but also legs. At present technological levels, however, the industrial robot is unable to have legs as yet and is equipped only with a hand and rather infantile intelligence. Hence, it is as yet worth2 half a man. And this robot is called an industrial robot. To put it simply an industrial robot is an automatic machine having a hand.

3. The origin of the word 'robot' is said to have appeared first in a play called RUR (Rossum's Universal Robots) written by a Czech playwright, Karel Capec. Men riding on a fully-packed train in the outskirts of Prague were just like machines lacking in individuality3, Capec called such men robots in his play by parodying the word 'robota' meaning slave labour. The word 'robot' came into being4 by the bitter satire of the condition of man who was deprived of his humanity and became like a machine.

4. The three principles of a robot were set forth, they determined the character of robots. These three principles were: (1) a robot must do no damage to man, (2) a robot must be subordinate to man, and (3) a robot must protect itself from damage.

5. Those who work with robots must assume the responsibility both for solving the short-range technical problems and for assessing and minimizing the social difficulties of mobilization.

6. In this day of flexible automation, industrial robots are increasingly seen as a significant factor in further automating production systems and enhancing economic activity. The use of industrial robots has produced a number of economic and social advantages. Among them are the improvement in productivity, greater humanization of working life, prevention of labour accidents, improvement of product quality and the development of new industries.

Notes

1. clear-cut definition – четкое определение

2. it is as yet worth – тем не менее (все же) он заслуживает

3. lacking in individuality – отсутствие индивидуальности

4. came into being– вошло в обиход

 

II.Say whether the following statements are true or false:

1. There is no clear-cut definition for industrial robots. 2. Robots can't be considered as substitutes for men. 3. The origin of the word "robot" is said to have appeared first in a play written by a German playwright. 4. The use of industrial robots has produced a number of economic and social advantages.

III. Answer the following questions on paragraphs 1 and 2:

1. In what form have robots been familiar in our minds for years? 2. Can you give a definition of industrial robots?

IV. Give Russian equivalents to the word-groups given in the boxes of the logical diagram.

               
   
 
   
Robots equipped with micro-computers
 
Hand-operated robots “magic hands”
 
   
 
   
 
     
Robots with cognitive and sensory functions
 
 
Robots with a complex motion

 


V.Describe the types of industrial robots using the logical diagram and the information of paragraph 1.

VI.Translate paragraph 2.

VII. Find the English equivalents of the following words and word-groups:

происхождение слова, появляться впервые, окраина, обозначать, отсутствие индивидуальности, универсальный робот, быть лишенным чего-либо, означать, рабский труд.

VIII.Now say whom Capec called ”robots” and why.

IX. Name the three principles which determine the character of robots, using the information of paragraph 4.

X. Describe the economic and social advantages of industrial robots using the information of the last paragraph.

LESSON THREE

I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents facilitating reading text B.

initial – (перво)начальный; to delight – восхищать(ся); assembly line – линия сборки; senseless – бессмысленный; to service-обслуживать; preference – предпочтение; to ensure–обеспечивать; growth – рост, увеличение; introduction – введение; to yield – производить, давать; creative – творческий, созидательный; prestigious – престижный; raise – поднимать, повышать; labour productivity – производительность труда; quality – качество; to speed up – ускорять, увеличивать (выпуск продукции); currently – в настоящий момент; artificial – искусственный, неестественный.

П. Skim through the text and try to formulate the main idea (you are given 10 minutes):

Text В

People and Robots

Robots were invented a long time ago. But the initial delight at them everywhere in the world gave way to caution1. It is one thing when a robot gives flowers to a lady, plays chess, reads a book aloud, and it is quite another when it is used on an assembly line.

Like any new machine, the robot needs skilled servicing2. There are such specialists at research institutes but it is a different matter at factories. It seemed senseless to use robots at plants where engineers would service them, that is, do primitive work by means of sophisticated equipment3. As a result, the development of robots continued, but in mass production4 preference was given to traditional automation-production lines, sections and shops which ensured a rapid growth in production. Then the introduction of robots in industry was sharply accelerated.

The engineers are still needed to service robots. But if the robots are used in groups, only one engineer is needed for each group and this yields good economic results. This fact in itself is nothing new – specialists spoke of it in the early 1970s. The question, however, was to find areas of industrial production where robots could be widely used.

The introduction of robots at enterprises is one of the many things which make it possible to give intellectual and creative content to a person's work. The workers who are replaced by robots are retrained without any cuts in their earnings5 and they move to the more intellectual levels of production. Robots help to solve the personnel problem in those production areas which are not prestigious, raise labour productivity, improve the quality of products and speed up the introduction of new equipment.

The demand for manipulators is growing. Specialized enterprises for their mass production are currently being built. Industry has begun the production of second-generation robots, the so-called adaptive robots which have "technical vision" and are capable of performing complicated operations. It is planned to start the production of third-generation robots with elements of artificial intellect.

Notes

1. gave way to caution – побудило к предосторожности

2. skilled servicing – квалифицированное обслуживание

3. sophisticated equipment – сложное оборудование

4. mass production – крупномасштабное (массовое) производство

5. without any cuts in their earnings – без снижения их заработной платы

III. Answer the following questions on the contents of the text:

1. When were robots invented? 2. Robots need skilled servicing, don't they? 3. Why was preference given to traditional automation-production lines some years ago? 4. How do robots help people in their work? 5. Are the industrial enterprises ready for the introduction of robot complexes?

IV. Say some words about the role of robots at enterprises.

LESSON FOUR

I. Look through the list of words facilitating reading text C:

adaptive – адаптивный, приспосабливающийся; according to – согласно; to tune – настраивать; forge work – кузнечная работа; foundry work – литейная работа; loading – погрузка; unloading –разгрузка; tactile – осязательный, осязаемый; beam – луч, пучок лучей; to possess – владеть, обладать; means – способ, средство; appraise – оценивать; purposeful – целеустремленный, преднамеренный; to enable – давать возможность (что-л. сделать); to benefit – приносить пользу; experience – опыт; to approach – приближаться, подходить.

II. Scan text С. While scanning look for answers to the following questions:

1. What kinds of robots have been widely introduced in industry?

2. What is the main feature of the second generation of robots?

Text С

Three Generations of Robots

1. The automatically controlled industrial manipulators are divided into three generations: programmed, adaptive and intellectual.

2. Characteristic of the first generation – the programmed robots – is that their control system acts according to a rigid oft-repeated programme1 all the time. But the programmed robot is easily retuned to various action programmes.

3. All the industrial robots in stamping, mechanical processing, forge and foundry work, and in other auxiliary "manual" operations as well as in loading and unloading that have been widely introduced belong to this generation. They will continue to be the main type of robot. But adaptive robots, or robots of the second generation, are being developed along with them. Where they differ is that they possess the most elementary senses in their manipulators – tactile (sense and touch), power (reaction to the magnitude of the work effort),2 locating,3 (reaction to the distance to the object and the speed of approaching it), and light (reaction to the object located within a beam of light), and subsequently micro process the information.

4. The third generation – intellectual robots – possess far richer means for sensing (including sight), for appraising the situation, and for processing information with a view to adopting a decision and carrying it out using drives and organizing the purposeful movement of the manipulator. This enables us to say that here the robot possesses a mo dicum4 of "artificial intellect".

5. However, in these complex problems, man is not yet completely excluded. Artificial intellect will be used when it is more effective than human intellect, i.e. in the cases when the human organism itself will not be able to react quickly to a large bulk of information5 that an artificial intellect can process quickly. But for a long time to come, these systems will have an operator, who will solve problems in complicated situations, using human experience.

6. All these objectives figure in the state programme for the development of robot technology in future, and will be carried out to benefit the various industries.

Notes

1. a rigid oft-repeated programme – фиксированная часто повторяющаяся программа

2. the magnitude of the work-effort – величина (степень) рабочего усилия

3. locating – местоположение

4. modicum – очень малое количество (чуточка)

5. a large bulk of information – большой объем информации

 

III. Say what you have learned about the first generation of robots.

IV. Find the information about the second generation of manipulators and say it to your group-mate.

V.Which paragraph contains the information about the third generation of robots?

VI. Explain why artificial intellect can't be used now instead of human one and say when it will be used.

VII. Summarize the ideas developed in texts А, В and С. Use this information to make a report on the theme "Robots Today and Tomorrow". The following plan will help you:

1. Historical background of robots.

2. Three generations of robots.

3. Different types of industrial robots.

4. The role of robots in industrial production.

 

 

UNIT THIRTEEN

Grammar:Complex Sentence (§ 17)..

Functions of one(§23).

Word-formation;adj +n =n

n +adj =adj.

• Individual Work:Lab Work "Complex Sentence".

 

LESSON ONE

Pre-text Exercises

 

I.Practise the reading of the following words:

 

negotiation [nIˏgquSI'eISn], persuasion [pq'sweIZn], ingredient [In'gri:diqnt], source [sO:s], receiver [rI'si:vq], encode [In'kqud], originate [q'riGIneIt], misinterpretation [ˏmIsIntWpri'teISn], verbal ['vq:bl].

 

II. Check up if you can read these words correctly and say what words in the Russian language help you to guess their meaning:

communication, information, process, symbol, discipline, instruction, model, telephone, engineer, nature, factor, position.

 

III. State to what parts of speech the words in black type belong:

1. Communicationis a process by which informationis exchanged between individuals. 2. The basicingredients of a communications model include a source, encoder,message, channel, decoder, receiver,feedback and noise. 3. Telephone, radio and television delivera continuous stream of information. 4. The electrictelegraph was the beginning of the whole vasttelecommunications industry. 5. The man who put most effort into developing the telegraph was a successful American painterand sculptorSamuel Morse. 6. Modern communication owesits very existenceto the evolution in digitalelectronics. 7. A great Russian scientistA.S.Popov was the first who produced an apparatus which became the world's greatest meansof communication. 8. It was the energy and persistenceof A.G.Bell which madethe telephone a practical instrument. 9. Thomas Alva Edison is known as one of the greatest inventorsof his time. 10. Present-day telephones, television sets, satellites and microwave transmitters all restupon a foundation of computers.

 

IV. Find Russian equivalents given below to the English compound words:

short-circuit, loud-speaker, intervision, hardware, software, hyper-graph, microreader, microcopy, hi-fi (high fidelity), lo-fi (low fidelity), high-light, highway, shorthand;

микроинструкция, короткое замыкание, стенография, программное (математическое) обеспечение, аппаратура, гиперграф, громкоговоритель, уменьшенная копия, аппарат для чтения микрофильмов, аппарат высокого класса, аппарат низкого класса, интервидение, световой эффект, автомагистраль.

 

V. Form nouns adding the suffix -er (-or) to the given verbs, translate them:

Example: to record — записывать

recorder — звукозаписывающий аппарат

to encode, to decode, to receive, to interpret, to process, to transmit, to read, to produce, to discover, to inform, to deliver, to design, to elect, to instruct, to supervise.

VI. Translate the following compound adjectives:

inch-thick, atom-free, heat-proof, trouble-free, iron-strong, duty-free, note-worthy, hammer-proof, dust-free, gas-blue, snow-white, century-old, iron-grey, pencil-thin.

VII. Check up if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a dictionary if necessary:

to deliver, to decode, to interpret, to select, to transmit, to differentiate, to permit, to join, to complete, to invent, to refer to, to appreciate, to convey.

VIII. Define the functions of the word one in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.

1. A given problem can have more than onealgorithm for its solution. 2. The new devices have a number of advantages over the old ones.3. A "negative ion" is onewhich has gained (получил) an electron. 4. A "positive ion" is onewhich lost an electron. 5. Circuits that can perform this logical operation and similar oneshave been built and tested. 6. At present robot technology has two major branches, onetechnological and the other scientific. 7. Higher speeds are oneof the basic features of modern technical progress. 8. Onemust always be careful when operating this machine. 9. Our old laboratory equipment was much worse than the new one.10. The idea of automation is oneof the most important ideas for modern industry.

IX. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the meaning of the word one:

1. The theory of the basic devices in radio engineering – radio transmitting and radio receiving ones — was developed by the scientists. 2. To understand what laser is one has to understand how light is generated. 3. The input unit to be described here is a new one. 4. One can make matter vibrate in different ways. 5. In future power stations will use the principle of direct conversion of solar energy into electric one. 6. Due to radioactive elements one can measure the thickness of various materials. 8. He knew that no one could help him. 9. The history of the exploration of the Urals has been a long one. 10. I know only one solution of this problem.

X. Find in text A sentences with the word one and translate them into Russian.

XI. Find the sentences with additional clauses among the ones given below. Translate these sentences into Russian:

1. It seems probable that language was fully developed about 25,000 years ago. 2. Precise recording instruments show that no two native speakers of a language pronounce any word or sound of that language exactly the same. 3. We often hear that the increasing flood of information will be one of the problems of the 21-st century. 4. Some people believe that learning a foreign language is just a matter of memorizing words. 5. When Galileo invented the telescope he realized that an arrangement of lenses could also be used to magnify objects. 6. At the beginning of the 20-th century, astronomers believed that Mars was

quite similar to our world. 7. Scientific study of society shows that human history develops from stage to stage according to definite laws.

8. Maxwell predicted that waves longer than those of light could exist.

9. The laboratory is the place where experiments as well as scientific research may be carried out. 10. If you want to get the atomic weight of an element, you must add together the protons and neutrons. 11. The atomic weight of an element tells us how many times it is heavier than hydrogen.

XII. Translate the sentences paying attention to the subordinating
conjunctions introducing attributive clauses:

1. Electronics is that branch of science and technology which studies the conduction of electricity through gases or in vacuum. 2. There are about thirty radio stations in the world that put on Esperanto programmes. 4, Chemistry is the science that deals with the structure of matter and its changes. 5. The degree to which computers will take over human functions may frighten some people and astonish others. 6. Omar Khayam wrote a book on algebra which was the best of its time and he also prepared and improved astronomical tables. 7. The device which is expected to be available later, looks like a hand-held calculator with a keyboard of letters instead of numbers. 8. The laboratory is the place where experiments as well as scientific research may be carried out. 9. The liquid takes up the shape of a vessel in which it is contained. 10. There are some general guides that you will find helpful for your experiment.

 

XIII. Choose the sentences with attributive clauses from the ones
given below. Translate them into Russian:

1. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behaviour. 2. Computers are machines which are able to solve complex mathematical problems. 3. Atoms and electrons are so small that they cannot be seen under the most powerful microscopes. 4. Radio is a device that transmits and receives signals and programs by electromagnetic waves. 5. A transistor is a small electronic device whose function is the same as that of an electronic tube 6. The medium or channel through which the message is carried may take the form of face-to-face communication. 7. It is often said that one should use the language of those to whom one is speaking. 8. Corrosion is a very serious problem which worries scientists, technologists and economists.

XIV. Find in text A complex sentences. Define the types of subordinate clauses and translate the sentences into Russian.

XV.Match up the words which have a similar meaning:

a) to broadcast, symbol, to understand, discipline, purpose, to include, to speed up, to change, quantity, to reduce, medium, for example, to appreciate.

b) to alter, to radio, for instance, environment, to approve, to realize, to accelerate, subject, aim, to embrace, sign, amount, to cut down.

 

XVI.Listen to the following tape-recorded lexical programme, memorize all the words and word groups:

■ to exchange — обменивать (ся), менять (ся) ■ tool — перен. орудие, средство; инструмент ■ communications models — модель связи (коммуникации) ■ system of spoken symbols — система речевых знаков ■ theorist — теоретик ■ source — источник я encoder — кодирующее устройство; кодировщик ■ message— сообщение, сигнал ■ decoder — декодирующее устройство; декодер

■ feedback — обратная связь ■ to originate — происходить, брать начало ■ to translate — преобразовывать, переводить в другую систему ■ to accomplish — выполнять; завершать ■ message fidelity — точность (верность) сообщения ■ message for transmittal — сообщение для передачи ■ precise meaning — точное значение ■ ingredient — составная часть, компонент в negotiations — переговоры

■ call — телефонный разговор; вызов ■ sound — звук ■ to select — выбирать, отбирать, подбирать ■ to convey — выражать; сообщать, передавать.

LESSON TWO

I. Read text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:

Text A

Communications Model

 

1. Communication isa processby which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behaviour.

2. Verbal communication, commonly referred to as1 "talking", is based on a system of spoken symbolsthat are used to relay ideas and emotions. It is a vital and powerful tool2 for the passage of information, the delivery of explanations and instructions, and the acts of negotiation and persuasion.

3. To fully understand oral communication3,let's look at the nature
of the process. Models are useful in the engineering discipline4, as they
are in our daily job-related5 and personal communications6. A model of
communication has been developed by several theorists in the field.

4. The basic ingredients of this modelinclude a source, encoder, message, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback, and noise. Communication originates in the source, which may be conceived as a member of a project team7 who has some information to transmit. This information is translated via an encoding process into a set of symbols8 or a language. The purpose or intent of the source is expressed in the form of a message. The medium or channel through which the message is carried may take the form of face-to-face communication9, for example, or perhaps a telephone call. The receiver decodes and interprets the message in light of his own frame of reference10 and experience. The feedback, the receiver provides the source, informs the message initiator11 whether the communication has been effectively accomplished. Noise, in the behavioural sense, includes factors such as conceived value judgments, misinterpretations, and misunderstandings which can reduce the message fidelity.

5. The presentation and discussion of the model of communication is intended to help the engineerunderstand why some of the messages sent are not received as originally intended. For example, care must be taken12 in encoding a message. The words selected by the source must convey precise meaning if the receiver is to decode them as they were intended, not in light of one's personal value system13. This suggests that when one is sending a message,one should place oneself in the position of the receiver and prepare and encode the message accordingly. It is often said that one should use the language of those to whom one is speaking. The engineer, accordingly, should understand and appreciate the process of decoding as he does the encoding of the message for transmittal.

 


Notes

1. commonly referred to as — на которую обычно ссылаются как на

2. its is a vital and powerful tool — это важное и мощное средство

3. oral communication — устное общение, коммуникация 4 engineering discipline — техническая дисциплина

5. job-related communication — деловое общение

6. personal communication — личное (персональное) общение

7. project team — проектная группа

8. a set of symbols — набор символов (знаков)

9. f ace-to-face communication — личное общение

10. in light of his own frame of reference — согласно его собственной компетенции

11 the message initiator — отправитель сообщения

12care must be taken — следует быть осторожным

13 not in light of one's personal value system – не в собственной интерпретации

 

II.Say whether the following statements are true or false:

1. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or be haviour. 2. Verbal communication is not considered to be a vital and powerful tool for the passage of information, the delivery of explanations and instructions. 3. The basic ingredients of a communications model do not include a source, encoder, message, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback and noise. 4. The presentation and discussion of the model of communication is intended to help the engineer understand why some of the messages sent are not received as originally intended, 5. The engineer should understand and appreciate the process of decoding as he does the encoding of the message for transmittal.

III.Find the place in paragraph 2 containing information about verbal communication,

IV.In paragraph 3 find the English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

техническая дисциплина, модель, деловое общение, разрабатывать, теоретик, природа, область, понимать, ежедневно, иллюстрировать.

V.Answer the following questions on paragraph 4:

1. What are the basic ingredients of a communications model? 2. Where does communication originate? 3. The purpose of the source is expressed in the form of a message, isn't it? 4. How does the receiver decode and interpret the message?

VI. Read paragraph 5 and say:

a) what the presentation and discussion of the model of communication is intended for; b) whether care must be taken in encoding a message; c) how one should behave when one is sending a message; d) what language one should use in sending a message; e) how the engineer should treat the processes of decoding and encoding the message for transmittal.

VII. Write out of the text words, word combinations for describingthe procedure of encoding the message.

VIII. Describe the basic ingredients of a communications model to your partner.

IX. Divide text A into logical parts and find the topical sentences
in each part.

X. Fill in the boxes of the following logical diagram of the text
with Russian equivalents:

       
 
 
   
misunderstanding

 


XI. Speak about a communications model using topical sentences and words from the scheme.

XII. Read text A again. Concentrate on key fragments in black type. Rearrange the key fragments so as to make a logical plan of a would-be precis. Write the precis of the text. Try to make the number of the sentences in your precis equal to the number of paragraphs in the original.

 

LESSON THREE

I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents facilitating reading text B:

medium (pi. media) — средство, способ, путь; среда; to evolve -развивать, разрабатывать; message — сообщение, послание; to revolutionize — революционизировать; information – информация; to remain — оставаться; facility — средство; to displace — вытеснять, смещать; mail — почта; to supply — поставлять; снабжать; to store – хранить; continuous – непрерывный; to exhibit – демонстрировать, показывать; feature – характерная черта, особенность.

II. Read the text andtry to find the main information of it:

Text В

New Electronic Media

Over time, a wide range of communications media1 have been evolved to support human activities. In the process, new media have often assumed some (or all) of the functions of existing media. For example, Letters have been a personal communications medium for thousands of years. In the 19th century priority messages began to travel by telegraph, and since the end of that century, people have been able to talk to each other over the telephone. This development so revolutionized personal communications that writing letters is a dying art – the information they contain and the functions they perform are now included in a telephone call. Telegraph has also undergone change While it may still exist as a wire connection carrying low-speed data2 it has also developed into an automatic network serving commercial and industrial establishments. Even though the majority of message traffic has been diverted to Telephone, the telex network remains a vital communications facility in many nations. In other nations, Telegraph is being displaced by Data Communications4, and both Telegraph and Telephone are being replaced by Electronic Mail5, and other media.

Communications media may be differentiated on the basis of the functions they perform. Thus, Books, Magazines, Newspapers and Letters supply capsules of information which are of use over a limited time. For instance: many books will be of interest to someone for several years; on the average6, magazines evoke interest7 over a shorter period of time; and newspapers and letters hold the interest8 of the majority of readers for a matter of days, or less. Insofar as9 they all store information which can be retrieved10 as many times as the user desires, they can be called record media11.

In contrast, Telephone, Radio and Television deliver a continous stream of information12, as it is produced. They can be called real-time media . So can Data Communications, the medium which permits the exchange of information between machines. As for Telegraph it exhibits both real-time and record features.

Notes

l. a wide range of communications media – широкий набор средств связи

2. a wire connection carrying low speed data – проводная связь, передающая несрочную информацию

3. serving commercial and industrial establishments – обслуживающую торговые и промышленные учреждения

4. data communication — передача данных

5. electronic mail — электронная почта

6. on the average — в среднем

7. evoke interest — вызывают интерес

8.hold the interest — удерживают интерес
9. insofar as – поскольку

10. which can be retrieved — которую можно восстанавливать

11. record media — записывающие средства

12. a continuous stream of information – непрерывный поток информации

13 real-time media – средства передачи данных (или информации) в реальном масштабе времени

 

III. Answer the following questions to the text:

1. What kinds of communications media have been evolved over a time? 2. Has telephone undergone any change? 3. What is the basis for differentiating communications media? 4. What are record– and real-time media?

IV.Speak about the basis for differentiating communications media.

V.Give a short summary of text B.

LESSON FOUR

I. Look through the list of words facilitating reading text C:

forerunner — предшественник; ancestor — предок, прародитель; impulse — импульс, толчок; to detect — обнаруживать; click -щелканье, щелчок; to coin — создавать новые слова; wireless — беспроводной; to succeed in — добиваться успеха; particle — частица; amateur — любитель; broadcasting — передача радио– и телевизионных программ; service — служба.

II.Read the following text carefully. While reading it look for the
answers to the questions:

1. Who was the discoverer of electric telegraph? 2. Who made the telephone a practical instrument? 3. Who laid the foundations of electronics?

Text С

The Magnitude of Invention

1. The electric telegraph was the beginning of the whole vast telecommunications industry, the forerunner of the telephone, radio, television, communications satellites1 — in fact, a direct ancestor of everything now united under the convenient heading of "electronics".

2. But as with most other great inventions, the idea had been around for a long time. As early as 1747 electrical impulses had been transmitted along a wire laid across Westminster Bridge2, and detected at the other end by the crude but effective method of having someone hold on to the wire.

3. Strangely enough, the man who put most effort3 into developing the telegraph was a successful American painter and sculptor, Samuel Morse. On April 1, 1845, the world's first telegraph line between Baltimore and Washington has been opened for public use4, and after that the telegraph spread rapidly across Europe and America.

4. Joining the continents proved a much more difficult job5, but in 1856 the Atlantic Telegraph Company was organized to attempt the most demanding technical feat of the age and, in 1859, the Atlantic cable was completed.

5. But the inventors were already striving to transmit something more than the clicks of a Morse key. Wheatstone had coined the word" telephone in 1821, when he was only 19. Many others contributed ideas, but it was the energy and persistence of Alexander Graham Bell which made the telephone a practical instrument. Bell first realized how a telephone could be made to work in June 1875. After that progress was very rapid. The first permanent telephone line was opened in April 1876 in Boston.

6. Twenty years later, the invention of the wireless telegraph was to follow a very similar pattern. Guglielmo Marconi was only 21 years old when he succeeded in transmitting signals' by radio waves for nearly a mile.

7. A much more effective way of producing radio waves, and a more sensitive means of detecting them, were essential for progress, and were soon discovered. The invention of Edison, Fleming, and Lee de Forest were the beginning of electronics, exploiting the newly-made discovery that the electric current was actually a stream of particles, or electrons. They made wireless telephony8 possible, as distinct from telegraphy. By 1919 there were a large number of amateur wireless enthusiasts and conditions were ripe for the beginning of broadcasting services.

Notes

1. communications satellites – спутники связи

2. Westminster Bridge – Вестминстерский мост

3. who put most effort — который внес наибольший вклад

4. for public use — для общественного пользования

5. proved a much more difficult job — оказалась намного более трудной задачей

6.had coined the word — создал (придумал) слово

7. succeeded in transmitting signals — добился успеха в передаче сигналов

8. wireless telephony — беспроводная телефонная связь

9. amateur wireless enthusiasts — радиолюбители

III.Find answers to the following questions:

1. When were electrical impulses transmitted? 2. Who put most effort into developing telegraph? 3. What did Guglielmo Marconi succceed in?

IV. Say what the forerunner of the whole telecommunications industry was.

V. Find the information about the person who contributed greatly into making the telephone a practical instrument.

VI. Say at what age Guglielmo Marconi succeeded in transmitting signals by radio waves.

VII.Which paragraph contains the information that the inventions of Edison, Fleming and Lee de Forest were the beginning of electronics.

VIII.Summarize the general ideas developed in texts А, В and C.

IX.Imagine that you are to make a report about the means of communication at a scientific conference. While preparing the report use the information of texts А, В, С and the following plan:

1. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals.

2. Modern means of communication rest upon a foundation laid by such scientists as Samuel Morse, Wheatstone, Graham Bell, Edison, Fleming and others.

3. New electronic media have been evolved to support human activities.

4. Telephone, radio, television and data communications are realtime media.

5. Books, magazines, newspapers, letters are record media.

UNIT FOURTEEN

• Grammar: Noun as an Attribute (§ 19).

• Word-Formation: adj + n + -ed = adj.

n + -al = adj.

• Individual Work:Lab Work "Conditional Clauses".

 

LESSON ONE

Pre-text Exercises

I. Practise the reading of the following words:

efficient [I'fɪʃənt], capacityy [kə'pæsɪtɪ], fiber ['faɪbə], speed [spi:d], digital ['dIGItəl], voice ['vɔɪs], conversation [ˏkɔnvə'seɪʃn].

II. Check up if you can read the words correctly and say what words in the Russian language help you to guess their meaning:

decade, concept, second, system, type, telephone, cable, communication, electron, copper, diameter, interference, regeneration, resistance.

III.State to what parts of speech the following words belong:

information, install, speed, impressive, digital, television, conversation, conventional, protection, carrier, typically, inexpensive, versatility, data, travels, signals.

IV. Find the roots of the following words:

using, electrical, relatively, pulsing, easily, digital, alternately, conduction, construction, addition, equipment, operating, interference, carrier, resistance, regenerator.

V.Give the Russian equivalents of the following English compound adjectives with the suffix

-ed:

a fair-sized vessel, a great-faced clock, yellow-coloured walls, thick-lensed spectacles, high-priced equipment, light-flooded sky, good-humoured sarcasm, an ice-coated sign, a narrow-sheeted newspaper, a grey-roofed house, an oval-shaped vase, solid-headed lines.

VI.Form compound adjectives with the suffix -ed, corresponding to the following word combinations:

Example: a building of red brick – a red-bricked building

a machine-tool of medium size, an alphabet of Greek letters, a cover of soft leather, zigzags of a red pencil, mixture of thick oil, a box with thin walls, a house of small size, a clock with a dark face, a figure with sharp angles, a person of high culture, a man with narrow mind.

VII.Form adjectives by adding the suffix -al to the following nouns, making changes where necessary:

Example: form – форма

formal – формальный

optics, theory, electricity, digit, nation, idea, music, conversation, principle, structure, practice, notion, logics, vocation, profession.

VIII.Check up if you know the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a dictionary if necessary:

to transmit, to cost, to consider, to abridge, to undermine, to accommodate, to handle, to install, to compare, to eliminate, to require, to allow, to encounter, to travel, to carry.

IX.Read and translate the following word combinations paying attention to nouns as attributes:

light pulses, light wave communications system, transmission system, telecommunications network, glass fiber, voice signal, data signal, television signal, telephone conversation, telecommunications transmission, construction cost, underground duct, copper cable, signal regenerator, carrier system, device reliability, laser beam, laser beam wave, radio wave, radio wave speed.

X.Choose the sentences from the text containing word combinations with nouns as attributes.Translate these sentences into Russian.

XI.Match up the words which have a similar meaning:

a) concept, information, sophisticated, versatile, enormous, speed, to undermine, single, inexpensive, conventional, significant, to handle, to require, space.

b) important, to operate, to demand, room, idea, traditional, data, many-sided, cheap, the only, very large, destruct, rate, intricate.

XII.Try to memorize all the words and word-groups:

■ decade – десятилетие ■ light pulse – световой импульс ■ to transmit information – передавать информацию ■ lightwave communications system – система связи с использованием световых волн ■ hair-thin glass fiber – стекловолокно толщиной в человеческий волос ■ voice signal – речевой сигнал ■ capacity – мощность ■ contents – содержание ■ high-speed data signal – высокоскоростной сигнал данных ■ accommodate – включать, охватывать ■conventional – традиционный, обычный ■ copper wire – медная проволока ■ to substitute for – заменять, замещать ■ to install – устанавливать ■ electromagnetic interference – электромагнитная помеха (интерференция) ■ lightguide cable – световодный кабель ■ carrier system – многоканальная система связи ■ signal regenerator – регенератор сигнала ■ electrical digital carrier system – система электрической многоканальной цифровой связи ■ equipment оборудование ■ protection – защита

LESSON TWO

I. Read text A. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:

Text A

Modern Light-Wave Communications Technology

1. Some time ago, the concept of using light pulses instead of electrical signals1 to transmit information was only that – a concept. Today, lightwave communications systems are among the most sophisticated transmission systems in the telecommunications network. They are at once efficient, versatile and relatively inexpensive to install and maintain.

2. The efficiency of lightwave systems is perhaps their most renowned quality2. They carry enormous amounts of information over long distances at very high speeds. Consider, for example, the speed and capacity of the Bell System's long distance lightwave system. Light pulsing through a single, hair-thin glass fiber in this system can transmit the entire contents of Webster's unabridged dictionary4 – more than 2700 pages – over thousands of miles in only six seconds.

3. No less impressive than this tremendous speed and capacity is the versatility of light-wave systems. Because they are digital systems, they can transmit easily any of these types of information: voice signals, high-speed data signals, and television signals. Without undermining quality or efficiency, a single system can accommodate thousands of telephone conversations, and alternately handle data or video signals.

4. Finally, lightwave systems are inexpensive to install and operate compared to their wire-and-cable counterparts. Moreover, they allow considerable savings.

5. The reasons for such savings stem from the technology of lightwave communications. Conventional telecommunications transmission is based on the conduction of electrons through metal (usually copper wires). Lightwave systems, however, substitute protons for electrons and glass fibers for copper. These technological differences translate into big savings5, the most significant of which is in construction costs. Because lightguide cables are only a fraction of the diameter and weight6 of copper cables, they are easy to handle and take up far less space. They can be installed in existing underground ducts and rights-of-way7, sometimes right next to copper cables.

6. In addition, lightwave systems eliminate certain equipment and operating costs. They are immune to electromagnetic interference8, and therefore require no protection from it. Also, light can travel much farther through lightwave cables without regeneration than can electrons through copper carrier systems. This is because the light encounters little resistance from the very pure glass fibers through which it travels. Lightwave systems require significantly fewer signal regenerators than do electrical digital carrier systems: typically one every ten miles instead of one every mile.

Notes

1. the concept of using light pulses instead of electrical signals – идея использования световых импульсов вместо электрических сигналов

2. their most renowned quality – их самое известное свойство

3. over long distances – на большие расстояния

4. the entire contents of Webster's unabridged dictionary – полное содержание неадаптированного словаря Вебстера

5. translate into big savings – приводят к большой экономии

6. only a fraction of the diameter and weight – только частица в диаметре и по весу

7 right-of-way – полоса отчуждения

8. are immune to electromagnetic interference – невосприимчивы к электромагнитной интерференции

II. Say whether the following statements are true or false:

1. The concept of using light pulses instead of electrical signals to transmit information is not new. 2. The efficiency of lightwave systems is their most renowned quality. 3. Lightwave systems can transmit various types of information: voice signals, high-speed data signals, and television signals. 4. Conventional telecommunications transmission is not based on the conduction of electrons through metal.

III. Answer the following questions on paragraph 1:

1. Is the idea of using light pulses instead of electrical signals to transmit information new?

2. Do lightwave communications systems belong to the most sophisticated transmission systems?

3. What are the qualities of lightwave communications systems?

IV. Find the place in paragraph 2 containing information about the possibility to transmit the entire contents of Webster's dictionary over thousands of miles in only six seconds.

V. In paragraphs 3 and 4 find the English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:

огромная скорость, по сравнению с, разносторонность; система дискретной (цифровой) связи, речевой сигнал, сигнал данных, видеосигнал, устанавливать, качество, эффективность.

VI.Translate paragraph 5 into Russian.

VII.Read paragraph 6 and say:

a) whether lightwave systems eliminate certain equipment and operating costs; b) whether they are immune (невосприимчивы) to electromagnetic interference; c) whether light can travel much farther through lightguide cables without regeneration than electrons; d)whether lightwave systems require significantly fewer signal regenerators than electrical digital carrier systems.

VIII. Write out of the text words, word combinations for describing advantages of light wave systems. Use these words for describing these advantages to your group-mate.

IX. Describe the technological differences between conventional telecommunications transmission and lightwave systems.

X. Divide text A into logical parts and find topical sentences in each part.

XI. Fill in the boxes of the following logical diagram of text A with Russian equivalents:

                             
   
transmission system
 
 
 
   
 
   
 
   
 
   
voice signals
 
high-speed data signals
 
television signals
 


XII. Read text A again. Make a list of key fragments picked out from each successive paragraph. Rearrange the key fragments, make a plan and then use it to write a précis. The number of sentences in your précis should be approximately the same as the number of paragraphs in the original.

LESSON THREE

I. Look through the list of the English words and their Russian equivalents facilitating reading text B:

fiber – волокно; strand – прядь, жила, нитка; breakthrough – достижение, открытие; transparent – прозрачный; call – телефонный разговор, заказ; вызов; immune – устойчивый, невосприимчивый; interference – помеха, вмешательство; интерференция; to affect – влиять, воздействовать; to sweep through – охватывать; to handle – обращаться, управлять; core – стержень, сердцевина; to reflect – отражать; ingredient – компонент, составная часть; to draw (drew, drawn) – тянуть, вытягивать; to coat – наносить покрытие; grain – крупица, зерно; application – применение.

 

П.Read text В and entitle it. Compare your title with the one given by the author (see the key on page the author (see the key on page 169)

 

Text B

Optical fibres, hair-thin strands of pure glass carrying information as pulses of light1, have been described as "probably the biggest breakthrough in telecommunications since the invention of the telephone". All kinds of communications can be carried along the same optical fibre cable – speech, text, photos, drawings, music, computer data, etc. – at higher speeds than have been previously possible.

The fibres, made from glass so pure that a block of it 20 km thick would theoretically be as transparent as a window pane2, have many advantages over metal wires. Small, light and easy to handle, they are made from an abundant raw material, sand. They can carry the same number of telephone calls as metal cables ten times as thick – dozens of fibres, carrying around, 100,000 telephone calls, could all pass through the eye of a needle4, at the same time – and they are immune to electrical interference which affects the quality of calls. An optical fibre cable the thickness of a finger could bring a hundred TV channels to a receiver.

The tiny strands are playing a key role5 in the digital revolution which is sweeping through modern telecommunications. The telecommunications network developed for the telephone used a system which turned the air pressure waves created by speech into continuous and variable "analogues" of electrical waves and turned them back to speech at the receiver. Expensive conversion equipment or separate networks were needed to handle text, TV or computer data. In the digital world, however, all forms of information are translated into bits6, the standard international language of today's computers, and represented as pulses of light. Information in this form can be processed easily and sent anywhere in seconds in a single multi-purpose network. Optical fibres are ideal for digital working and open the door to a host of services not possible on an analogue system.

Each strand of fibre consists of an inner core7 to channel the light and an outer cladding8 to keep it in by reflecting it back along the core. To make the glass for the fibres, the ingredients are deposited as gases on the inside of a hollow silica tube9 at temperatures of around 2000°C. The tube is collapsed under intense heat to form a solid glass rod10 about I cm in diameter which already has the structure of the fibre which will be drawn from it. The rod is then loaded into a furnace, drawn into fibre and coated with resin to protect it and increase its flexibility. Tiny crystals the size of grain of salt are used to produce the light which carries information along the fibres. This passes through a lens into the fibre. At the other end a receiver reverses the process and turns each light pulse into an electrical sign. Optical fibres will have countless applications11 in tomorrow's "information society".

Notes

1) carrying information as pulses of light – несущие информацию в виде световых импульсов

2) as transparent as a window pane – прозрачный, как оконное стекло









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