|ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS|
Прилагательные обозначают признаки предметов и отвечают на вопрос какой? A wide road. Широкая дорога. A tall tree. Высокое дерево. An interesting book. Интересная книга.
Наречия отвечают на вопрос как? Не speaks English well. Он говорит по-английски хорошо.
Прилагательные и наречия имеют три формы степеней сравнения: положительную, сравнительную, превосходную.
Формы сравнительной и превосходной степеней образуются двумя способами:
Если прилагательное односложное, форма его сравнительной степени образуется при помощи суффикса -er, а форма превосходной степени — при помощи суффикса -est.
|Положительная степень||Сравнительная степень||Превосходная степень|
|strong сильный||stronger сильнее||the strongest сильнейший|
|cold холодный||colder холоднее||the coldest самый холодный|
Некоторые двусложные прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -у, -er, -ow образуют степени сравнения так же, как и односложные, с помощью суффиксов -ег и -est.
easier более легкий, легче
the easiest самый легкий, легчайший
cleverer более умный, умнее
the cleverest самый умный, умнейший
narrower более узкий, уже
the narrowest самый узкий
От двусложных прилагательных и прилагательных, состоящих из трех или более слогов, сравнительная степень образуется при помощи слова more (less), а превосходная степень — при помощи слова most (least).
more (less) famous более (менее) знаменитый the most famous самый знаменитый, знаменитейший
more (less) interesting более (менее) интересный, интереснее
the most interesting самый интересный, интереснейший
Исключения при образовании степеней сравнения прилагательных
|Положительная степень||Сравнительная степень||Превосходная степень|
|good (хороший)||better (лучше)||the best (самый лучший лучше всего)|
|bad (плохой)||worse (более плохой, хуже)||the worst (самый плохой, худший)|
|little (маленький)||less (меньше, меньший)||the least (самый I маленький)|
|many, much (много)||more (больше)||most (больше всего, самый большой)|
|far (далекий) far (далеко)||farther (более далекий) further (дальше)||the farthest (самый далекий) the furthest (дальше всего)|
Существительное, определяемое прилагательным в превосходной степени, всегда имеет определенный артикль the.
4.A Образуй сравнительную и превосходную степень от следующих прилагательных и наречий:
1. Large, tall, long, easy, hot, big, cold, nice, bad, strong, short, wide, good, safe, high, low, busy, well, little, many, far.
2. Rigid, simultaneously, anisotropic, completely, reinforced, elastic, alternately, brittle, ceramic, remaining, stable, gradual, stable, hazardous, copper.
4.B Переведи предложения на русский язык:
1. This density is not so high as that one.
2. This material is not so heavy as that one.
3. The more you read, the more you know.
4. The stiffness is not as important as rigid structure.
5. The earlier you get up, the more you can do.
6. The deformation is as irreversible as the strength.
7. Materials are not so ductile as brittle.
8. Fiberglass is flexible as well as strong.
9. Aluminium alloys are considerably not so dense as steels.
10. For a metal the yield strength may be less than the fracture strength.
4.C Выбери подходящий вариант:
It was Lucy`s birthday and she was very sad/sadly. She had been waiting hopeful/hopefully all morning for the postman to arrive. Sudden/Suddenly, the letterbox rattled gentle/gently and an envelope fell soft/softly onto the doormat. Picking it up, Lucy noticed miserable/miserably that it was a bill. There were no cards, no presents and no pretty/prettily bouquets of flowers. Lucy near/nearly burst into tears. Just then, there was a loud/loudly knock on the door. Opening the door slow/slowly, Lucy saw all her friends holding brightly/bright wrapped gifts and shouting `Happy Birthday`. Lucy immediate/immediately cheered up and greeted her friends warm/warmly.
4.D Раскрой скобки:
Julia was walking (quick) down the street when she heard someone call her name (loud). She looked (nervous) behind her, but the street was (complete) empty. There was nobody there. (Sudden), she heard her name again. She turned to see her brother running towards her, smiling (cheerful). `Didn`t you hear me?` he laughed (happy). `Nick!` gasped Julia. `You (near) frightened me to death! `
|CHAPTER5||ABOUT THE LOGISTICS|
5.1 Прочитай и перескажи текст TRANSPORTATION:
Cargo, i.e. merchandise being transported, can be moved through a variety of transportation means and is organized in different shipment categories. Unit loads are usually assembled into higher standardized units such as: ISO containers, swap bodies or semi-trailers. Especially for very long distances, product transportation will likely benefit from using different transportation means: multimodal transport, intermodal transport (no handling) and combined transport (minimal road transport).
Operators involved in transportation include: all train, road vehicles, boats, airplanes companies, couriers, freight forwarders and multi-modal transport operators.
Merchandise being transported internationally is usually subject to the Incoterms standards issued by the International Chamber of Commerce.
5.2 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст CONFIGURATION AND MANAGEMENT и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:
A. Similarly to production systems, logistic systems need …
B. Traditionally in logistics …
C. Regarding a single warehouse, besides the issue of …
D. Configuration at the level of …
E. This distinction is more …
F. Although configuring a …
G. Once a logistic system is configured, …
H. At the warehouse level, the logistician must …
I. Picking efficiency varies greatly depending on …
J. At the level …
1. … the situation. For man to goods situation, a distinction is carried out between high level picking (vertical component significant) and low level picking (vertical component insignificant). A number of tactical decisions regarding picking must be made: Routing path: standard alternatives include transversal routing, return routing, midpoint routing and largest gap return routing. Replenishment method: standard alternatives include equal space supply for each product class and equal time supply for each product class. Picking logic: order picking vs batch picking.
2. … management, meaning tactical decisions, takes place, once again, at the level of the warehouse and of the distribution network. Decisions have to be made under a set of constraints: internal, such as using the available infrastructure, or external, such as complying with given product shelf lifes and expiration dates.
3. … distribution network from zero is possible, logisticians usually have to deal with restructuring existing networks due to presence of an array of factors: changing demand, product or process innovation, opportunities for outsourcing, change of government policy toward trade barriers, innovation in transportation means (bothvehicles or thoroughfares), introduction of regulations (notably those regarding pollution) and availability of ICT supporting systems (e.g. ERP or e-commerce).
4. … decide how to distribute merchandise over the racks. Three basic situations are traditionally considered: shared storage, dedicated storage (rack space reserved for specific merchandise) and class based storage (class meaning merchandise organized in different areas according to their access index).
5. … of the distribution network, tactical decisions involve mainly inventory control and delivery path optimization. Note that the logistician may be required to manage the reverse flow along with the forward flow.
6. … to be properly configured and managed. Actually a number of methodologies have been directly borrowed from operations management such as using Economic Order Quantity models for managing inventory in the nodes of the network. Distribution resource planning (DRP) is similar to MRP, except that it doesn't concern activities inside the nodes of the network but planning distribution when moving goods through the links of the network.
7. … useful for modeling purposes, but it relates also to a tactical decision regarding safety stocks: considering a two level network, if safety inventory is kept only in peripheral warehouses then it is called a dependent system (from suppliers), if safety inventory is distributed among central and peripheral warehouses it is called an independent system (from suppliers). Transportation from producer to the second level is called primary transportation, from the second level to consumer is called secondary transportation.
8. … designing and building the warehouse, configuration means solving a number of interrelated technical-economic problems: dimensioning rack cells, choosing a palletizing method (manual or through robots), rack dimensioning and design, number of racks, number and typology of retrieval systems (e.g. stacker cranes). Some important constraints have to be satisfied: fork and load beams resistance to bending and proper placement of sprinklers. Although picking is more of a tactical planning decision than a configuration problem, it is important to take it into account when deciding the racks layout inside the warehouse and buying tools such as handlers and motorized carts since once those decisions are taken they will work as constraints when managing the warehouse, same reasoning for sorting when designing the conveyor system and/or installing automatic dispensers.
9. … configuration may be at the level of the warehouse (node) or at level of the distribution system (network).
10. … the distribution system concerns primarily the problem of location of the nodes in a geographic space and distribution of capacity among the nodes. The first may be referred to as facility location (with the special case of site selection) while the latter to as capacity allocation. The problem of outsourcing typically arises at this level: the nodes of a supply chain are very rarely owned by a single enterprise. Distribution networks can be characterized by numbers of levels, namely the number of intermediary nodes between supplier and consumer: Direct store delivery, i.e. zero levels; One level network: central warehouse; Two level network: central and peripheral warehouses
5.3 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND WAREHOUSE CONTROL SYSTEMS и замени выделенные слова на подходящие местоимения:
Although there is some overlap in functionality, warehouse management systems (WMS) can differ significantly from warehouse control systems (WCS). Simply put, a WMS plans a weekly activity forecast based on such factors as statistics and trends, whereas a WCS acts like a floor supervisor, working in real time to get the job done by the most effective means. For instance, a WMS can tell the system that it is going to need five of stock-keeping unit (SKU) A and five of SKU B hours in advance, but by the time it acts, other considerations may have come into play or there could be a logjam on a conveyor. A WCS can prevent that problem by working in real time and adapting to the situation by making a last-minute decision based on current activity and operational status. Working synergistically, WMS and WCS can resolve these issues and maximize efficiency for companies that rely on the effective operation of their warehouse or distribution center.
5.4 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст LOGISTICS OUTSOURCING и заполни пропуски:
Logistics outsourcing involves a relationship between a company and an LSP (logistic service provider), which, compared with basic logistics services, has more customized offerings, encompasses a broad number of service activities, is characterized by a long-term orientation, and thus has a strategic nature.
Outsourcing does not have to be complete externalization to a LSP, but can also be partial: A single contract for supplying a specific service on occasion; Creation of a spin-off; Creation of a joint venture
Third-party logistics (3PL) involves using external organizations to execute logistics activities that have traditionally been performed within an organization itself. According to this definition, third-party logistics includes any form of outsourcing of logistics activities previously performed in house. For example, if a company with its own warehousing facilities decides to employ external transportation, this would be an example of third-party logistics. Logistics is an emerging business area in many countries.
The concept of a fourth-party logistics (4PL) provider was first defined by Andersen Consulting (now Accenture) as an integrator that assembles the resources, planning capabilities, and technology of its own organization and other organizations to design, build, and run comprehensive supply chain solutions. Whereas a third-party logistics (3PL) service provider targets a single function, a 4PL targets management of the entire process. Some have described a 4PL as a general contractor that manages other 3PLs, truckers, forwarders, custom house agents, and others, essentially taking responsibility of a complete process for the customer.
5.5 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст PRODUCTION LOGISTICS:
The term production logistics describes logistic processes within a value adding system (ex: physical plant or a mine). Production logistics aims to ensure that each machine and workstation receives the right product in the right quantity and quality at the right time. The concern is not the transportation itself, but to streamline and control the flow through value-adding processes and to eliminate non–value-adding processes. Production logistics can operate in existing as well as new plants. Manufacturing in an existing plant is a constantly changing process. Machines are exchanged and new ones added, which gives the opportunity to improve the production logistics system accordingly. Production logistics provides the means to achieve customer response and capital efficiency.
Production logistics becomes more important with decreasing batch sizes. In many industries (e.g., mobile phones), the short-term goal is a batch size of one, allowing even a single customer's demand to be fulfilled efficiently. Track and tracing, which is an essential part of production logistics due to product safety and reliability issues, is also gaining importance, especially in the automotive and medical industries.
5.6 Прочитай, переведи и перескажи текст:
Logistics management is that part of the supply chain that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective forward and reverse flow and storage of goods, services, and related information between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet customer requirements. A professional working in the field of logistics management is called a logistician: Materials management; Channel management; Distribution (or physical distribution); Supply-chain management.
Logistics automation is the application of computer software and/or automated machinery to improve the efficiency of logistics operations. Typically this refers to operations within a warehouse or distribution center, with broader tasks undertaken by supply chain management systems and enterprise resource planning systems.
Industrial machinery can typically identify products through either Bar Code or RFID technologies. Information in traditional bar codes is stored as a sequence of black and white bars varying in width, which when read by laser is translated in a binary sequence, which according to fixed rules can be converted in a decimal number. Sometimes information in a bar code can be transmitted through radio frequency, more typically radio transmission is used in RFID tags. An RFID tag is card containing a memory chip and an antenna which transmits signals to a reader. RFID may be found on merchandise, animals, vehicles and people as well.
5.7 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст LOGISTICS: PROFESSION AND ORGANIZATIONS и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:
A. A logistician is a professional …
B. Some universities and …
C. The Chartered Institute of …
D. The International …
1. … Association of Public Health Logisticians (IAPHL) is a professional network that promotes the professional development of supply chain managers and others working in the field of public health logistics and commodity security, with particular focus on developing countries. The association supports logisticians worldwide by providing a community of practice, where members can network, exchange ideas, and improve their professional skills.
2. … Logistics and Transport (CILT), established in the United Kingdom in 1919, received a Royal Charter in 1926. The Chartered Institute is one of the professional bodies or institutions for the logistics and transport sectors that offers professional qualifications or degrees in logistics management. CILT programs can be studied at centers around UK, some of which also offer distance learning options. The institute also have overseas branches namely The Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport Australia (CILTA) in Australia and Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in Hong Kong (CILTHK) in Hong Kong.
3. … logistics practitioner. Professional logisticians are often certified by professional associations. One can either work in a pure logistics company, such as a shipping line, airport, or freight forwarder, or within the logistics department of a company. However, as mentioned above, logistics is a broad field, encompassing procurement, production, distribution, and disposal activities. Hence, career perspectives are broad as well. A new trend in the industry are the 4PL, or fourth-party logistics, firms, consulting companies offering logistics services.
4. … academic institutions train students as logisticians, offering undergraduate and postgraduate programs. A university with a primary focus on logistics is Kühne Logistics University in Hamburg, Germany. It is non profit and supported by Kühne-Foundation of the logistics entrepreneur Klaus Michael Kühne.
Предлоги места и движения:
1.Предлог at употребляется:
Ø когда подразумевается конкретное место нахождения: The postman is at the door.
Ø где происходит событие: There were a lot of people at the party.
Ø в выражениях: at school/university/college, at work, at home, at the top of, at the bottom of, at sea = on a voyage, at the station/airport, at the seaside, etc.: I live at 18 King Street (Но: in King Street)
Ø когда речь идет о чьем-либо доме или бизнесе: at Joan’s, at the doctor’s, at the newsagent’s.
2.Предлог in употребляется:
Ø в выражениях: in the middle, in the sea, in the sky, in bed, in hospital, in prison, in a newspaper/magazine/book, in a picture/photo, in a street, in the world, in the lesson, in the country, in one’s hand, etc.
Ø с названиями городов, столиц, стран и континентов: in Stratford, in Milan, in Egypt, in Asia
NB: in –внутри, в самом здании, at – абстрактно, о действии: It was very hot in the cinema (в здании кинотеатра). My parents are at the cinema (смотрят фильм).
3.Предлог on употребляется в выражениях: on the left/right, on a platform/page/screen/island/ beach/coast, on a map, on a farm, on a menu, on the first/second/… floor, on a chair (Но: in an armchair), on/at the corner of a street (Но: in the corner of a room, go/run/… round a corner)
4.Когда речь идет о путешествиях разными видами транспорта употребляется предлог by: by car/by bus/by train/by taxi/by plane/by boat, но on foot. By не употребляется, когда есть артикль, личное местоимение и с притяжательным падежом: on the train, in your car, on the eight o’clock bus/in a taxi/on the plane/in Richard’s car.
Ø Предлог from … to/till/until употребляются для выражения длительности: She works from 9 to/till/until 5 every day.
Ø Предлог in употребляется чтобы сказать сколько времени займет действие: He finished the test in half an hour. Our new flat will be ready in a month.
Предлоги времени не употребляются с today, tomorrow, tonight & yesterday: I’ll see you tomorrow; с this, last, next, every, all, some, each, one & any: He has a music lesson every Tuesday.
5.A Выбери подходящий вариант:
1. There is a picture of our equipment on/at/in this magazine.
2. The lead is in/under/on the mould.
3. Let’s go to the office in/at/opposite Mira Street.
4. The Samsonovs work at/in/on the second floor.
5. Stepan is in/near/behind bed at the moment. He’s not feeling very well.
6. The bakery is at/opposite/on the park.
7. Nina sits under/beside/in me at uni.
8. There is a laboratory at/under/near the bank.
9. Look at the stars between/in/at the sky.
10. My house is between/on/among the institut & the office.
11. After the experiment, there was rubbish in/at/on the floor.
12. Let’s meet on/between/at the KFC.
13. There’s a very interesting article about UFOs in/on/at the vkontakte today.
14. We have a big garden among/behind/between our house.
15. Sit beside/in/under the fire. It will keep you warm.
16. Put the chicken at/behind/in the oven.
5.B Заполни пропуски:
1. “Where are my keys?” “Probably _ your pocket.”
2. “I like to sit _ the window on planes.” “So do me. I like to see clouds.”
3. “Where shall I put the cups?” “ _ the table, please.”
4. “Where is the cat? I can’t see it.” “It’s _ the table.”
5. “Where is your house?” “It’s _ the supermarket & the greengrocer’s.”
6. “Where’s the newspaper?” “It’s _ the floor.”
7. “Where’s the post office in this town?” “It’s _ Lenina Street.”
8. “Were you born _ England?” “No, I was born _ Italy.”
9. “Where does your dog sleep?” “ _ the hall.”
10. “Where shall I put this table?” “ _ the desk & the blackboard.”
11. “Where is M r. Denisov?” “He has just gone _ his office.”
12. “Why are you looking at the map?” “Because I want to see if there’s another way of getting to the village instead of going _ the forest.”
13. “What’s that noise?” “There’s a plane flying _ the house.”
14. “Where does this train go?” “It goes _ Surgut _ KhMAA.”
15. “How do I get to the SUSU from here?” “Just walk _ the corner & you’ll see it.”
16. “Where is your football?” “It rolled _ the hill & fell _ the river.”
17. “Why are you tired?” “Because I just ran _ the stairs.”
5.C Поставь прилагательные в скобках в нужную форму:
1. Steel is (strong) than wood.
2. New manufacturing techniques are (develop) than old ones.
3. Do composites have (low) coefficient of thermal expansion?
4. It was (bad) mistake I’ve ever made.
5. Metal alloys have (bad) than continuous carbon fibre PMCs.
6. It will become possible to produce composite materials at (high) volumes and at a (low) cost than is now possible.
7. PMCs and other composite materials tend to be (high) anisotropic of all.
8. The advanced composites are (expensive) in their manufacturing costs.
6.1 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст:
Transportation demand management, traffic demand management or travel demand management (all TDM) is the application of strategies and policies to reduce travel demand (specifically that of single-occupancy private vehicles), or to redistribute this demand in space or in time.
In transport as in any network, managing demand can be a cost-effective alternative to increasing capacity. A demand management approach to transport also has the potential to deliver better environmental outcomes, improved public health, stronger communities, and more prosperous and livable cities. TDM techniques link with and support community movements for sustainable transport.
6.2 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст BACKGROUND, выбери подходящий артикль и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:
A. A/an/the term TDM has its …
B. A/an/the concepts of TDM borrowed from …
C. Some cities outside Europe have …
D. Relatively low and stable oil …
E. Because vehicle travel was …
F. A/an/the British Government's …
G. A/an/the companion document to a/an/the …
H. A/an/the similar study by a/an/the United …
1. … mainstream transport planning in Europe, which had never been based on assumptions that a/an/the private car was a/an/the best or only solution for urban mobility. For example, a/an/the Dutch Transport Structure Scheme has since a/an/the 1970s required that demand for additional vehicle capacity be met only "if the contribution to societal welfare is positive" and since 1990 has included a/an/the explicit target to halve the rate of growth in vehicle traffic.
2. … prices during a/an/the 1980s and 1990s led to significant increases in vehicle travel, both directly because people chose to travel by car more often and for greater distances, and indirectly because cities developed tracts of suburban housing, distant from shops and from workplaces, now referred to as urban sprawl. Trends in freight logistics, including a/an/the movement from rail and coastal shipping to road freight and a/an/the requirement for just in time deliveries, meant that freight traffic grew faster than general vehicle traffic.
3. … White Paper on Transport marked a/an/the change in direction. In a/an/the introduction to a/an/the White Paper, Prime Minister Tony Blair stated that «We recognise that we cannot simply build our way out of a/an/the problems we face. It would be environmentally irresponsible - and would not work».
4. … States Federal Highway Administration, was also released in 2004 and also concluded that a/an/the more proactive approach to transportation demand was an important component of overall national transport strategy.
5. … increasing rapidly from 1980–2000, it follows that (with a/an/the few exceptions) a/an/the techniques of demand management were not widely or successfully applied during this period. Small-scale projects to provide alternatives to single occupant commuter travel were common, but generally were led from outside a/an/the mainstream of transport planning. However many of a/an/the techniques in a/an/the demand management toolbox were developed during this period.
6. … also consistently taken a/an/the demand management approach to transport and land use planning, notably Curitiba, Brazil, Portland, Oregon, USA, Arlington, Virginia, USA, and Vancouver, Canada.
7. … origins in a/an/the United States in a/an/the 1970s and 1980s, and is linked to a/an/the economic impacts of a/an/the sharp increase in oil prices during a/an/the 1973 oil crisis and a/an/the 1979 energy crisis. When long lines appeared at gas stations, it became self-evident that alternatives to single-occupancy commuter travel needed to be provided in order to save energy, improve air quality, and reduce peak period congestion.
8. … White Paper called "Smarter Choices" researched a/an/the potential to scale up a/an/the small and scattered sustainable transport initiatives then occurring across Britain, and concluded that a/an/the comprehensive application of these techniques could reduce peak period car travel in urban areas by over 20%.
6.3 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст TERMINOLOGY, выбери подходящий артикль и заполни пропуски:
1. climate change to date have
2. tried to mold the concept to their set of
3. promote and offer shared ride
4. cornerstone of sustainable
5. position of weak to strong sustainability by
6. vaguely related initiatives, and that
7. well as the daily management and operation of
8. controlling the flow onto
9. confusion as to what a
10. the use of the automobile; Professional
11. more sustainable system of
12. demand management is understood as
13. realize the benefits of
14. travel needs to be
Since 2010 transportation professionals have suggested that a/an/the TDM is widely misunderstood simply as a/an/the collection of _ this misunderstanding is constraining a/an/the true potential of a/an/the concept. TDM practitioners have found that TDM is far more effective when framed as a/an/the philosophical approach which in over time becomes a/an/the _ urban transport systems. A/an/the new paradigm in transport planning, internationally recognised as TDM, appears to be emerging which embraces concepts such as "mobility management" and "active travel management" under its umbrella.
Crucial to a/an/the delivery of a/an/the sustainable urban transport system is integrating a/an/the TDM philosophy into urban transport planning, as _ transport services and infrastructure. It appears that managing travel demand has largely been compartmentalized as a/an/the set of “soft measures” to promote sustainable travel options or programs to _ arrangements. Demand management means different things to different disciplines. For example: to Information Technology (IT) specialists, managing demand is new technology to provide information; to operations managers, managing demand is _ highways; to economists, it is pricing a/an/the system to find equilibrium with capacity; to marketers, it is promoting innovative campaigns; and to many policymakers TDM remains a/an/the largely unknown entity.
A/an/the concept has become confused as each discipline has _ tools. This “silo” thinking inhibits a/an/the kind of policy integration that is needed to develop a/an/the sustainable urban transport solution strategy. There remains much _ sustainable transport system would comprise. It is helpful therefore to consider different approaches to sustainable transport along a/an/the spectrum of viewpoints, ranging from weak to strong sustainability. Generally efforts to address a/an/the impact of transport on _ been largely focused on technology. A/an/the impact of this technological-led approach has been very limited in a/an/the transport sector. TDM has a/an/the potential to move a/an/the transport sector from a/an/the _ combining behavior-change with technology improvements.
In this context transport _ a/an/the much broader concept. Implicit in a/an/the use of the term is a/an/the assumption that it is accompanied by a/an/the implementation of sustainable mobility, introduction of full cost pricing and organizational or structural measures to ensure a/an/the broad range of complementary interventions work effectively together to _ sustainable transport. It is a/an/the unifying philosophy of TDM, not specific measures associated with it, that underpin a/an/the policy objective of a/an/the _ transport. This philosophy of managing demand accepts that meeting unfettered demand for travel is impractical and that therefore the system needs to be managed. That demand for _ managed by: Expanding a/an/the supply and availability of (more sustainable) alternatives; Controlling demand for a/an/the use unsustainable modes; Providing incentives and rewards for undertaking sustainable travel habits; and Imposing full-cost pricing on _ traffic operations engineer.