Употребление some и any, а также их производных определяется типом предложения.
В утвердительном предложении употребляются, как правило, местоимение some и его производные: Give те something to read, please. Дайте мне что-нибудь почитать, пожалуйста. I met him somewhere before. Я встречал его где-то раньше.
В вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях обычно используются местоимение any и его производные: Have you seen him anywhere? Вы видели его где-нибудь? Is there anything I can do for you? Могу ли я что-нибудь для вас сделать?
В отрицательных предложениях используется либо местоимение any и его производные: I cannot find this book anywhere. Я не могу нигде найти эту книгу.
Либо отрицательное местоимение no: There is nobody in that room. В той комнате никого нет. There isn’t anybody in that room. В той комнате никого нет.
Различия между местоимениями any и some — в степени неопределенности, поэтому иногда местоимение any можно встретить и в утвердительных предложениях: You can find this book anywhere. — Эту книгу вы можете найти где угодно.
2.H Вставь somebody, anybody, nobody или everybody:
1. The question is so difficult that ... can answer it.
2. ... left his bag in our office yesterday.
3. Has ... in this group got the knowledge of propulsion engines?
4. It is too late. I think there is ... in the office now.
5. ... knows that mechanical engineers operate machinery of all types.
6. Is there ... here who knows English?
3.1 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст:
Dispatchers are communications personnel responsible for receiving and transmitting pure and reliable messages, tracking vehicles and equipment, and recording other important information. A number of organizations, including police and fire departments, emergency medical services, taxicab providers, trucking companies, railroads, and public utility companies, use dispatchers to relay information and coordinate their operations. Essentially, the dispatcher is the "conductor" of the force, and is responsible for the direction of all units within it.
3.2 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст TRANSPORTATION AND SERVICE DISPATCHERS и сопоставь выражения с русскими эквивалентами: gas lines and water mains; to respond to service calls; transportation and warehousing industries; the delivery of freight over long distances; emergency roadside assistance
A number of other organizations use dispatchers чтобы ответить на служебные вызовы, coordinate transportation schedules, and to organize the delivery of materials. Truck dispatchers are employed by trucking companies to monitor доставка грузов на большие расстояния and coordinate delivery pickup and drop-off schedules. Bus dispatchers monitor the schedules of their bus fleet and address any problems that arise during their operations. Tow-truck dispatchers respond to calls for службу дорожного сервиса. Gas and water service dispatchers monitor their respective utilities and receive calls for emergency assistance that involve газопроводы и водопроводы. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, about 26% of all dispatchers employed in the United States in 2004 worked for транспортную и складскую индустрию.
3.3 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст WORKING CONDITIONS AND ENVIRONMENT и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности:
A. Dispatchers are responsible for …
B. All types of dispatchers work with …
C. Public safety dispatchers are usually the …
D. Human error can also …
E. Like very similar controlling …
1. … jobs, such as air traffic controllers, dispatcher positions can be notoriously stressful and full of non-stop work.
2. … first point of contact between emergency services and the public. When receiving incoming calls for help, these dispatchers must ascertain the nature, location, and extent of the emergency. The working conditions of a public safety dispatcher may be particularly stressful compared to others because handling a call in an inappropriate manner may delay or misdirect other emergency personnel, which could result in serious injury or even death. A dispatcher error in a San Juan County, New Mexico vehicle crash, for example, may have cost lives in May 2006. The dispatcher in San Juan County was criticized for not using GPS tracking to locate a van that crashed with six people inside. The dispatcher received eleven calls from the trapped crash victims. By the time rescuers located the van four hours later, all six people were dead. Callers requesting emergency assistance are often in a state of heightened emotional distress, which makes it difficult to obtain the information needed to handle the call appropriately. In the San Juan County incident, the crash victims did not know where they were.
3. … monitoring all of the communications within a specific geographic area. Public safety dispatchers are responsible for all emergency communications that occur within the jurisdiction of their department. These workers receive and document incoming calls, transmit messages to appropriate personnel, and keep logs of the daily activities of their personnel. Public safety dispatchers usually work in a police station, a fire station, or a hospital. Other dispatchers work in centralized communication centers associated with their specific company or service.
4. … telephones, radios, ACARS, and computers on a routine basis. They also monitor traffic patterns or other outside activity via video surveillance. As a result of sitting for long periods and using such equipment, dispatchers can develop eye strain and back problems. Many dispatchers must also work irregular hours to provide 24-hour service, which includes night, weekend, and holiday hours.
5. … produce deadly results for other types of dispatchers. A train dispatcher in Spain was found guilty of negligent homicide for a head-on train collision that occurred in June 2003. Nineteen people died and forty-eight were injured in a crash where the dispatcher allowed a passenger train to leave a station when a freight train was approaching the station on the same line.
3.4 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT и заполни пропуски:
1. … of education higher than a …
2. … local governments to dispatch for police, fire, or emergency medical …
3. … first contact made between the public …
4. … Emergency Medical Dispatchers, able to give first aid instructions to …
5. … projected to grow as fast as the …
6. … additional access to the state-level system comparable to NCIC which …
7. … employment as public safety …
Employment as a dispatcher does not usually require a level _ high school diploma. Employers prefer candidates with computer and clerical skills, communication skills, and the ability to work fast under pressure.
Candidates for _ dispatchers may be required to pass written, oral, or performance tests and are governed by state or local regulations. Public safety dispatchers may also have to obtain certifications and attend additional training before they are employed by state or _ services. The level of training required for these dispatchers is typically the most extensive in comparison to other dispatch positions.
A standard certification requirement for public safety dispatchers is Terminal Operator certification for access to the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) National Crime Information Center (NCIC) database system. Access to this database system often allows _ allows public safety dispatchers to access motor vehicle registration and drivers license information as well as wants or warrants by various law enforcement agencies both statewide and national.
In addition to certifications, specialized training is also required or appropriated to public safety dispatchers. As public safety dispatchers are the _ and emergency services, public safety dispatchers need to be able to extract a vast array of information out of the caller. Such specialized training can include: suicide intervention, hostage negotiation, bomb threats, tactical dispatching (for SWAT teams), domestic violence and domestic and foreign terrorism countermeasures. Many are also trained as _ victims or families prior to EMS arrival.
According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, 266,000 people were employed as dispatchers in 2004. Employment for dispatcher is _ average (an increase of 9 to 17 percent) through the year 2014. In addition, it is expected that a number of current dispatchers will either transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force, which will result in an increase of openings.
|THERE IS/THERE ARE|
Оборот there is / there are служит для выражения наличия (отсутствия) какого-либо предмета в определенном месте или в определенное время. Перевод предложения с таким оборотом нужно начинать с обстоятельства места, а если его нет, то со сказуемого.
There is a picture on the wall. На стене картина.
Is there a picture on the wall? На стене есть картина?
There are pictures on the wall. На стене картины.
Are there pictures on the wall? На стене есть картины?
There was a picture on the wall. На стене была картина.
Was there a picture on the wall? На стене была картина?
There were pictures on the wall. На стене были картины.
Were there pictures on the wall? На стене были картины?
There will be pictures on the wall. На стене будут картины.
Will there be pictures on the wall? На стене будут картины?
Выбор формы глагола to be зависит от числа существительного, следующего сразу за ним:
There is a chair and two armchairs in the room.
There are two armchairs and a chair in the room.
Вопросительные предложения с оборотом there is / there are строятся следующим образом
Общий вопрос: Is there anything in the bag? Will there be lessons tomorrow?
Специальный вопрос: What is there in the bag?
Разделительный вопрос. There are some pupils in the classroom, aren’t there?
3.A Вставь to be в нужной форме:
1. There ... a locomotive known as the Rocket. 2. ... there any engineers in the coal mines? Yes, there ... some . 3. ... there ... an opening of the notable bridge tomorrow? Yes, there ... . 4. There ... mathematical-instrument maker last winter. 5. There ... a lot of stars and planets in space. 6. ... there ... a lift in your future house? Yes, there ... . 7. Some years ago there ... many improvements of the steam engine. 8. ... there the steam engine, which was used at that time to pump out water from mines? No, there ... 9. ... there a separate condensing chamber for the steam engine? Yes, there ... . 10. ... there any various types of machinery? 11. ... there large loss of steam in the cylinder? No, there ... . 12. Soon there ... the resistance of the conductor and to the square of the current.
3.B Поставь вопросы к следующим предложениям:
1. There are some servomechanisms. 2. There is no feedback principle. 3. There were many units of power. 4. There are many researches in electricity and thermodynamics. 5. There will be a conference next week. 6. There are some investigations of the heat emitted in an electrical circuit. 7. There was no conservation of energy. 8. There are law states that the amount of heat produced each second in a conductor. 9. There is the resistance of the conductor. 10. There are many independent methods. 11. There are many operations of modern refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. 12. There was much work last week.
3.C Напиши следующие предложения в прошедшем и будущем временах:
1. There is one of the first miner’s safety lamps.
2. There are some loads in coal mines.
3. There is no notable bridges our town.
4. There are many famous inventors and mechanical engineers.
5. There is little amount of heat.
6. There are different properties of steam.
7. There is the numerical relation between heat and mechanical energy.
3.D Переведи на английский язык, употребляя неопределенные (или отрицательные) местоимения и их производные:
1. Есть кто-нибудь здесь? 2. В лаборатории никого нет. 3. В нашем офисе есть кто-нибудь? 4. В исследовательском центре кто-то есть. 5. В лаборатории есть кто-нибудь? — Там никого нет. 6. На столе есть что-нибудь? — Нет, там ничего нет. 7. На складе что-то есть. 8. В этой книге есть что-нибудь о транспортном маркетинге? 9. В исследовании есть какие-нибудь ошибки? — Да, там есть несколько. 10. В офисе есть кто-нибудь? - Нет, там никого нет. 11. В нашей библиотеке есть какие-то книги на английском языке. 12. В вашей библиотеке есть какие-нибудь книги на английском языке по логистике? 13. Здесь нет никакого шарового регулятора. 14. Возьмите что-нибудь почитать для меня о принципе обратной связи.
|CHAPTER4||WHAT IS THE LOGISTICS?|
4.1 Прочитай и письменно переведи текст:
Logistics is the management of the flow of goods between the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet some requirements, of customers or corporations. The resources managed in logistics can include physical items, such as food, materials, animals, equipment and liquids, as well as abstract items, such as time, information, particles, and energy. The logistics of physical items usually involves the integration of information flow, production, packaging, inventory, transportation, material handling, warehousing, and often security. The complexity of logistics can be modeled, analyzed, visualized, and optimized by dedicated simulation software. The minimization of the use of resources is a common motivation in logistics for import and export.
4.2 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст ORIGINS AND DEFINITION и расположи абзацы в правильной последовательности: The prevalent view is that the … The Oxford English Dictionary defines logistics as … According to the … Logistics is the process of … Academics and practitioners traditionally refer to …
1. … planning, implementing, and controlling the effective and efficient flow of goods and services from the point of origin to the point of consumption.
2. … "the branch of military science relating to procuring, maintaining and transporting material, personnel and facilities." However, the New Oxford American Dictionary defines logistics as "the detailed coordination of a complex operation involving many people, facilities, or supplies," and the Oxford Dictionary on-line defines it as "the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation." As such, logistics is commonly seen as a branch of engineering that creates "people systems" rather than "machine systems."
3. … the terms operations or production management when referring to physical transformations taking place in a single business location (factory, restaurant or even bank clerking) and reserve the term logistics for activities related to distribution, that is, moving products on the territory. Managing a distribution center is seen, therefore, as pertaining to the realm of logistics since, while in theory the products made by a factory are ready for consumption they still need to be moved along the distribution network according to some logic, and the distribution center aggregates and processes orders coming from different areas of the territory. That being said, from a modeling perspective, there are similarities between operations management and logistics, and companies sometimes use hybrid professionals, with for ex. "Director of Operations" or "Logistics Officer" working on similar problems. Furthermore, the term supply chain management originally refers to, among other issues, having a global vision in of both production and logistics from point of origin to point of production. All these terms may suffer from semantic change as a side effect of advertising.
4. … term logistics comes from the late 19th century: from French logistique (logermeans to lodge). Others attribute a Greek origin to the word: λόγος, meaning reason or speech; λογιστικός, meaning accountant or responsible for counting.
5. … Council of Logistics Management, logistics includes the integrated planning, control, realization, and monitoring of all internal and network-wide material, part, and product flow, including the necessary information flow, industrial and trading companies along the complete value-added chain (and product life cycle) for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements.
4.3 Прочитай и перескажи текст LOGISTICS VIEWPOINTS:
Inbound logistics is one of the primary processes of logistics, concentrating on purchasing and arranging the inbound movement of materials, parts, and/or finished inventory from suppliers to manufacturing or assembly plants, warehouses, or retail stores.
Outbound logistics is the process related to the storage and movement of the final product and the related information flows from the end of the production line to the end user.
4.4 Прочитай, письменно переведи текст ORIGINS AND DEFINITION и заполни пропуски:
Given the services performed by logisticians, the main fields of logistics can be broken down as follows: Distribution; Reverse; Production; RAM; Green; Disposal; Procurement
_ logistics consists of activities such as market research, requirements planning, make-or-buy decisions, supplier management, ordering, and order controlling. The targets in _ logistics might be contradictory: maximizing efficiency by concentrating on core competences, outsourcing while maintaining the autonomy of the company, or minimizing procurement costs while maximizing security within the supply process.
_ logistics connects procurement to distribution logistics. Its main function is to use available _ capacities to produce the products needed in distribution logistics. _ logistics activities are related to organizational concepts, layout planning, _ planning, and control.
_ logistics has, as main tasks, the delivery of the finished products to the customer. It consists of order processing, warehousing, and transportation. _ logistics is necessary because the time, place, and quantity of production differs with the time, place, and quantity of consumption.
_ logistics has as its main function to reduce logistics cost(s) and enhance service(s) related to the _ of waste produced during the operation of a business.
_ logistics denotes all those operations related to the reuse of products and materials. The _ logistics process includes the management and the sale of surpluses, as well as products being returned to vendors from buyers. _ logistics stands for all operations related to the reuse of products and materials. It is "the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost effective flow of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods and related information from the point of consumption to the point of origin for the purpose of recapturing value or proper disposal. More precisely, reverse logistics is the process of moving goods from their typical final destination for the purpose of capturing value, or proper _. The opposite of reverse logistics is forward logistics.
_ logistics describes all attempts to measure and minimize the ecological impact of logistics activities. This includes all activities of the forward and reverse flows. This can be achieved through intermodal freight transport, path optimization, vehicle saturation and city logistics.
_ logistics (see also logistic engineering) combines both business logistics and military logistics since it is concerned with highly complicated technological systems for which Reliability, Availability and Maintainability are essential, ex: telecommunication systems and military supercomputers.