Latin borrowings - The old-Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxes and Gutes got to know Romans on the Continent before these tribes invaded the British Isles.
The earliest borrowings from Latin are: wine - vinum (the Germanic tribes could not make wine and bought it from the Romans); pound - pondo, inch - uncia. These tribes bred cattle, they drank ale, milk, but could not make cheese or butter; they learnt the art of cheese- and butter-making from Romans, thus, cheese and butter are borrowings from Latin. These tribes knew only apples, names of all other fruit are borrowed, so are the names of vegetables, even the word plant - Latin planta.
In Britain the Romans built good roads which they called strata via - street. The word wall also belongs here. With introduction of Christianity in the 7 c. many religious terms appeared in English: bishop, monk, priest, candle; monasterium - minster (Westminster — западный монастырь), school was borrowed at the same time.
he second influx of Latin borrowings was observed during the Renaissance (15-16 cc.). Numerous translations of ancient authors called forth a number of bookish words (verbs with the suffix -ate - create, accommodate, illustrate, participate; verbs, ending in -ct - act, elect, direct, protect; -ute - constitute, distribute; adjectives in -ent/-ant - decent, evident, important, private.
Различные типы заимствований. Ассимиляция заимствований
Borrowed words (or loan words) - are words the origin of which can be traced to some other language outside English irrespective of the period of adoption.
The way this or that word was borrowed:
1. through speech (by immediate contacts between the peoples)
2. through written speech (by indirect contact, through books)
Oral borrowing took place chiefly in the early periods of history (trough trade with Roman merchants, e.g. wine, cheese, butter, pepper).
Written borrowings preserve their spelling (communique - French), sometimes pronunciation. They are often rather long and literary.
Borrowed words can be classified according to the degree of assimilation:
1. Completely assimilated words: travel, sport.
2. Partially assimilated words: words that are not assimilated semantically, or grammatically, or phonetically (prestige, garage). We must take into consideration the date of penetration, the changes that a word undergoes. We must not forget about the fact that the newcomer may influence the English Vocabulary (people - French, it drove away the native word folk).
3. Unassimilated words - cafe, policeman, car, machine, garage. They are words that are easily recognized as foreign words. Some borrowed words are unrecognizable as adoptions - table, wine.
Reasons for the degree of assimilation. The degree of assimilation depends upon:
1. the time of borrowing.
2. frequency and sphere of usage (words that are rarely used in everyday speech retain their foreign peculiarities.
3. It depends upon the way of borrowing. As words borrowed orally are assimilated much more, through written - are assimilated less: phenomenon.
Assimilation of borrowings
All the changes that borrowed elements undergo may be divided into two large groups.
§ On the one hand there are changes specific of borrowed words only. These changes aim at adapting words of foreign origin to the norms of the borrowing language, e.g. the consonant combinations [pn], [ps], [pt] in the words pneumatics, psychology, Ptolemy of Greek origin were simplified into [n], [s], [t], since the consonant combinations [ps], [pt], [pn], very frequent at the end of English words (as in sleeps, stopped, etc.), were never used in the initial position. For the same reason the initial [ks] was changed into [z] (as in Gr. xylophone).
The suffixes -ar, -or, -ator in early Latin borrowings were replaced by the highly productive Old English suffix -ere, as in L. Caesar —> OE. Casere, L. sutor —> OE. sūtere. By analogy with the great majority of nouns that form their plural in -s, borrowings, even very recent ones, have assumed this inflection instead of their original plural endings. The forms Soviets, bolsheviks, kolkhozes, sputniks illustrate the process.
§ On the other hand we observe changes that are characteristic of both borrowed and native words. These changes are due to the development of the word according to the laws of the given language. When the highly inflected Old English system of declension changed into the simpler system of Middle English, early borrowings conformed with the general rule. Under the influence of the so-called inflexional levelling borrowings like lазu, (MnE. law), fēōlaza (MnE.fellow), stræt (MnE. street), disc (MnE. dish) that had a number of grammatical forms in Old English acquired only three forms in Middle English: common case and possessive case singular and plural (fellow, fellowes, fellowes).
It is very important to discriminate between the two processes — the adaptation of borrowed material to the norms of the language and the development of these words according to the laws of the language.
This differentiation is not always easily discernible. In most cases we must resort to historical analysis before we can draw any definite conclusions. There is nothing in the form of the words procession and,progression to show that the former was already used in England in the 11th century, the latter not till the 15th century. The history of these words reveals that the word procession has undergone a number of changes alongside with other English words (change in declension, accentuation, structure, sounds), whereas the word progression underwent some changes by analogy with the word procession and other similar words already at the time of its appearance in the language.
Phonetic assimilation comprising changes in sound-form and stress is perhaps the most conspicuous. Sounds that were alien to the English language were fitted into its scheme of sounds. For instance, the long [e] and [ε] in recent French borrowings, alien to English speech, are rendered with the help of [ei] (as in the words communiqué, chaussée, café). Familiar sounds or sound combinations the position of which was strange to the English language, were replaced by other sounds or sound combinations to make the words conform to the norms of the language, e.g. German spitz [∫pits] was turned into English [spits]. Substitution of native sounds for foreign ones usually takes place in the very act of borrowing. But some words retain their foreign pronunciation for a long time before the unfamiliar sounds are replaced by similar native sounds. Even when a borrowed word seems at first sight to be identical in form with its immediate etymon as OE. skill <— Scand. skil; OE. scinn <— Scand. skinn; OE. ran <— Scand. ran the phonetic structure of the word undergoes some changes, since every language as well as every period in the history of a language is characterised by its own peculiarities in the articulation of sounds. In words that were added to English from foreign sources, especially from French or Latin, the accent was gradually transferred to the first syllable. Thus words like honour, reason were accented on the same principle as the native father, mother.
Usually as soon as words from other languages were introduced into English they lost their former grammatical categories and paradigms and acquired hew grammatical categories and paradigms by analogy with other English words, as in
им. спутник --- Com. sing. Sputnik
род. спутника --- Poss. sing. Sputnik’s
дат. спутнику --- Com. pl. Sputniks
вин. спутник --- Poss. pl. Sputniks’
предл. о спутнике
However, there are some words in Modern English that have for centuries retained their foreign inflexions. Thus a considerable group of borrowed nouns, all of them terms or literary words adopted in the 16th century or later, have preserved their original plural inflexion to this day, e.g. phenomenon (L.) — phenomena;addendum (L.) — addenda; parenthesis (Gr.) — parentheses. Other borrowings of the same period have two plural forms — the native and the foreign, e.g.vacuum (L.) — vacua, vacuums; virtuoso (It.) — virtuosi, virtuosos.
All borrowings that were composite in structure in their native lan-guage appeared in English as indivisible simple words, unless there were already words with the same morphemes in it, e.g. in the word saunter the French infinitive inflexion -er is retained (cf. OFr. s'aunter), but it has changed its quality, it is preserved in all the other grammatical forms of the word (cf. saunters, sauntered, sauntering), which means that it has become part of the stem in English. The French reflexive pronoun s- has become fixed as an inseparable element of the word. The former Italian diminishing suffixes -etto, -otta, -ello(a), -cello in the wordsballot, stiletto, umbrella cannot be distinguished without special historical analysis, unless one knows the Italian language. The composite nature of the wordportfolio is not seen either (cf. It. portafogli <— porta — imperative of ‘carry’ + fogli — ’sheets of paper’). This loss of morphological seams in borrowings may be termed simplification by analogy with a similar process in native words.
It must be borne in mind that when there appears in a language a group of borrowed words built on the same pattern or containing the same morphemes, the morphological structure of the words becomes apparent and in the course of time their word-building elements can be employed to form new words. Thus the word bolshevik was at first indivisible in English, which is seen from the forms bolshevikism, bolshevikise, bolshevikian entered by some dictionaries. Later on the word came to be divided into the morphological elements bolshevik. The new morphological division can be accounted for by the existence of a number of words containing these elements (bolshevism, bolshevist, bolshevise; sputnik, udarnik, menshevik). Sometimes in borrowed words foreign affixes are replaced by those available in the English language, e.g. the inflexion -us in Latin adjectives was replaced in English with the suffixes -ous or -al: L. barbarus —> E.barbarous; L. botanicus —> E. botanical; L. balneus —> E. balneal.
When a word is taken over into another language, its semantic structure as a rule undergoes great changes. Polysemantic words are usually adopted only in one or two of their meanings. Thus the word timbre that had a number of meanings in French was borrowed into English as a musical term only. The wordscargo and cask, highly polysemantic in Spanish, were adopted only in one of their meanings — ‘the goods carried in a ship’, ‘a barrel for holding liquids’ respectively.
In some cases we can observe specialisation of meaning, as in the word hangar, denoting a building in which aeroplanes are kept (in French it meant simply ’shed’) and revue, which had the meaning of ‘review’ in French and came to denote a kind of theatrical entertainment in English.
In the process of its historical development a borrowing sometimes acquired new meanings that were not to be found in its former semantic structure. For instance, the verb move in Modern English has developed the meanings of ‘propose’, ‘change one’s flat’, ‘mix with people’ and others that the French mouvoirdoes not possess. The word scope, which originally had the meaning of ‘aim, purpose’, now means ‘ability to understand’, ‘the field within which an activity takes place, sphere’, ‘opportunity, freedom of action’. As a rule the development of new meanings takes place 50 — 100 years after the word is borrowed.
The semantic structure of borrowings changes in other ways as well. Some meanings become more general, others more specialised, etc. For instance, the word terrorist, that was taken over from French in the meaning of ‘Jacobin’, widened its meaning to ‘one who governs, or opposes a government by violent means’. The word umbrella, borrowed in the meaning of a ’sunshade’ or ‘parasol’ (from It. ombrella <— ombra — shade) came to denote similar protection from the rain as well.
Usually the primary meaning of a borrowed word is retained throughout its history, but sometimes it becomes a secondary meaning. Thus the Scandinavian borrowings wing, root, take and many others have retained their primary meanings to the present day, whereas in the OE. fēolaze (MnE. fellow) which was borrowed from the same source in the meaning of ‘comrade, companion’, the primary meaning has receded to the background and was replaced by the meaning that appeared in New English ‘a man or a boy’.
Sometimes change of meaning is the result of associating borrowed words with familiar words which somewhat resemble them in sound but which are not at all related. This process, which is termed folk etymology, often changes the form of the word in whole or in part, so as to bring it nearer to the word or words with which it is thought to be connected, e.g. the French verb sur(o)under had the meaning of ‘overflow’. In English -r(o)under was associated by mistake withround — круглый and the verb was interpreted as meaning ‘enclose on all sides, encircle’ (MnE. surround). Old French estandard (L. estendere — ‘to spread’) had the meaning of ‘a flag, banner’. In English the first part was wrongly associated with the verb stand and the word standard also acquired the meaning of ’something stable, officially accepted’. Folk-etymologisation is a slow process; people first attempt to give the foreign borrowing its foreign pronunciation, but gradually popular use evolves a new pronunciation and spelling.