A road that goes around a city so that people driving cars can avoid it
A hard path at the side of the road made for people to walk on
A natural path in the country
1 a road in a town
Road Main Street
Street back street
High street alley
road/rqud/ a hard level surface made for cars and other vehicles to travel on [n C]
Dixon stepped into the road and raised his hand, shouting, “Taxi. Taxi.” | Before crossing the road, stop, look, and listen. | across/over the road (=on the other side of the road) A window lives in the house just across the road. | along/down/up the road (=on the same road) I went to the girls’ school down the road. | main road (=a large road where there is likely to be a lot of traffic) They turned left at the gas station, into the busy main road. | busy road (=a road where there is a lot of traffic) We’re coming up to a busy road and it’s dangerous, so hold my hand.
street /stri:t/ a road with houses or shops, and usually a path on both sides, in the middle of a town or in a part of a town where there are a lot of houses, shops etc [n C]
There were stores on both sides of the street. | Pablo loved wandering through the streets and cafes of Barcelona. | side street (=a small quiet street away from any main roads) If the car park’s full you might find a space in one of the side streets. | live in a street (British) / on a street (American) She had lived in the same street in London all her life.
high street /'hai stri:t/ a British expression meaning the main shopping street in the middle of a town [n C]
The High Street was crowded with Saturday morning shoppers. | Our bank has a branch in every high street.
Main Street /'mein stri:t/ an American expression meaning the main street in the middle of a town or city where there are a lot of shops, offices, hotels etc [n C]
Every Fourth of July there is a parade down Main Street. | Let’s have lunch at the diner on Main Street.
back street /'bæk stri:t/ a small street, away from the centre of a town, where there are no large shops or important buildings [n C]
They went exploring the dark, narrow back streets of the old part of town. | It took us almost an hour to find her house in a narrow little back street.
alley /'æli/ a very narrow street or part between buildings in a town [n C]
A narrow alley led up between the houses to the main street. | Women in white aprons gossiped in the alley between the apartment blocks.
2 a road outside a town
road /rqud/ [n C]
We drove into the countryside, along straight roads lined with trees. | The hospital was right on Route 66, the main road across the United States. | There are many interesting things to see on the road to Cairo.
3 a small road in the country
lane /lein/ a narrow road connecting villages or farms, sometimes with a few houses beside it [n C]
We rode our bikes along the little country lanes. | It’s a great day for the country show, but all those cars will jam the narrow lanes.
track /træk/ a narrow road leading to a farm or field, usually formed by the pressure of farm or field, usually formed by the pressure of farm vehicles on the ground [n C]
The track was only wide enough for one car. | The road leading to the farm was little more than a rough track.
dirt road /'dE:trqud/ a narrow road with a dirt or soil surface [n C]
A dirt road ran from the highway past the dump and into some trees. | Rain fell continuously and turned the winding dirt road into a river of slippery mud.
4 a wide road for cars to travel quickly between cities
motorway /'mqutqwei/ a British word meaning a wide fast road that connects big cities and towns [n C]
The speed limit on British motorways is 70 miles an hour. | It’s motorway nearly all the way – you should get there in a couple of hours. | the M1/M62 etc motorway The M1 motorway links London with the north of England.
highway /'haiwei/ an American word meaning a wide fast road that connects big cities and towns [n C]
I was on the four-lane highway now, finally free of the downtown traffic. | highway 61/70 etcThere’s a police mobile phone unit somewhere on highway 61.
freeway/expressway /'fri:wei, ik'spreswei/ an American word meaning a wide, fast road that takes traffic into and out of a big ity and is often busy [n C]
Marcia drove onto the freeway, joining the Saturday traffic leaving the city. | They got into the expressway to Manhattan. | We need to build more freeways to speed up traffic around Los Angeles.
5 a road that goes around a city so that people driving cars can avoid it
by-pass /'bai pa:s || -pæs/ [n C]
It will be much quicker if we take the by-pass rather than drive through the middle of town. | The village has become much quieter, since the creation of the by-pass.
ring road /'riη rqud/ a British word meaning a circular road around the edge of a large town, with roads leading from it into the centre of the town [n C]
The ring road goes right around London..
6 a hard path at the side of the road made for people to walk on
sidewalk/'saidwO:k/ a word used especcially in American English meaning a path at the side of a road made for people to walk on [n C]
We agreed to meet on the sidewalk, in front of the UN building. | A weed grew from every crack in the sidewalk.
pavement/'peivmqnt/ a British word meaning a path at the side of a road made for people to walk on [n C]
Christopher wandered along the pavement, looking into shop windows. | What annoys me is that everyone parks on the pavement in front of our house.
7 a natural path in the country
path/pa:θ || pæθ / [n C]
She went through the gate and followed the path across the fields. | There used to be a path down to the stream but it’s all overgrown now. | A narrow grassy path led down the hill to the town.
tootpath /futpa:θ || -pæθ / a British word meaning a narrow public path for people to walk on through farms, parks, hills etc [n C]
It was a pleasant walk along the public footpath beside the river. | Mining companies are blasting away the sides of beautiful valleys and destroying footpaths and woodland.
trall /treil/ a very rough path, especially in a forest or in the mountains, for people and animals to walk on [n C]
We followed a narrow trail which led into the forest.
[Dictionary of Phrase and Fable.
Scotland, New Lanark: Brockhampton
Press. – 1995. – p. 114]
¨ a horse-laugh a coarse, unmeaning laugh. One night, Mr. Yates being funnier than usual, if possible, a single horse-laugh suddenly exploded among the fiddles.
¨ to flog a dead horse to agitate for the revival of a creed that is extinct.
Arguing against Tom Paine is like flogging a dead horse.
¨ horse-play rough amusement. To be sure it was a boy, not a man, and child’s-play is sometimes preferred by the theatre-going world even to horse-play.
¨ to take horse to journey on horse-back. He took horse to the Lake of Constance, which is formed by the entry of the Rhine.
¨ one-horse mean; petty; in a small way. An Americanism. Oh, well, Phode Island is a one-horse state, where everybody pays taxes and goes to church.
¨ on one’s high horse puffed-up; arrogant. Well, the colonel does seem to be on his high horse, ma’am.
Единицы языка, которые приобрели:
- символическое значение,
- эталонное значение,
- образно-метафорическое значение в культуре, зафиксированное в:
ЗАДАЧИ И ЦЕЛИ ЛИНГВОКУЛЬТУРОЛОГИИ:
1) как культура участвует в образовании языковых концептов?
К какой части значения языкового знака прикрепляются «культурные смыслы»?
Осознаются ли эти смыслы говорящим и слушающим и как они влияют на речевые стратегии?
4) существует ли в реальности культурно-языковая компетенция носителя языка, на основании которой воплощаются в текстах и распознаются носителями языка культурные смыслы. В качестве рабочего определения культурно-языковой компетенции принимаем следующее: это естественное владение языковой личностью процессами речепорождения и речевого приятия и, что особенно важно, владение установками культуры; для доказательства этого нужны новые технологии лингвокультурологического анализа языковых единиц?