Acquire- приобретать, овладевать
actually-на самом деле, фактически, в действительности, вообще-то
aesthetic- амер. |esˈθetɪk|
сущ.- художественные взгляды
прил.- эстетический, чувствующий красоту, имеющий развитой вкус, чувственный (о познании)
Affect- сущ. аффект
гл. затронуть, воздействовать, сказаться
Canvas-холст, картина, полотно
Completely-совершенно, всецело, сполна
Endow- наделять, одарять, обеспечивать доходом
Feature-особенность, свойство, черта
focus- сущ. акцент, фокус, очаг, центр
гл. сфокусировать, сосредоточиться
Image-изображение, облик, конспект
impetus-побуждение, стимул, импульс
Impose- навязывать, обманывать
juxtaposition-наложение, сопоставление, соприкосновение
Mechanical- механический, автоматический, технический
motif-лейтмотив, главная мысль, кружевное украшение, основная тема
Ornament- сущ. украшение, орнамент, декорирующий элемент
painterly- прил. живописный, относящийся к живописи (his painterly talents — его талант к живописи)
Particularly- в особенности, в частности
Permanently- постоянно, на постоянной основе
Pragmatic- практичный, прагматический
render- сущ-первый слой штукатурки
Significance-значение, смысл, выразительность
Subject matter-тематика, предмет науки
Subtle-искусный, неуловимый, проницательный
Vocabulary and Grammar Tasks
Ex. 1, p. 19
Изящные искусства-fine arts,
ведущий мотив-principal motif,
неумолимый динамизм- inexorable dynamism,
выдающиеся достижения- spectacular achievements,
футуристская интерпретация традиционного натюрморта -Futurist version of traditional stilllife,
основа для абстракции- basis for abstraction,
изделия массового производства- mass-produced objects,
смещать акцент-to shift focus,
передавать динамизм современной жизни-to render the dynamism of contemporary
Ex. 2, p. 19
1. Symbolism had its roots in literature, but came to affect all forms of artistic expression.
2. The Futurists’ paintings of crowds and machines in motion were perhaps their most spectacular achievements.
3. Ardengo Soffici’s Decomposition of the Planes of a Lamp takes as its principal motif a banal mass –produced object.
4. The collage – the key invention of Synthetic Cubism – featured scraps of newspaper, old labels, fragments of wallpaper, in facts all kinds of industrial detritus.
5. Three things established themselves at the very heart of the modernist aesthetic, and continued to influence artists long after Futurism had exhausted its impetus.
6. The American artist Stuart Davis, heavily influenced by French Cubism, took the Lucky Strike package as the subject-matter for a picture.
7. Davis asked his audience to shift focus and look at it in a totally different way, as if they had never seen it before.
8. Another American painter, Gerald Murphy, already seems to anticipate the Pop Art of the 1960s in a canvas produced in 1922.
9. The fascination with machine forms had an inevitable impact on the decorative arts.
10. In the nineteenth century pure machine forms were invisible. They only acquired visibility once they were ornamented in some way.
Ex. 3, p. 20
1. Symbolism in its first phase involved a dandified revolt against materialism.
2. Artists and craftsmen who pursued ever more esoteric and refined effects and sensations eventually reachedthe point where both they and their audience began to feel permanently jaded.
3. In their paintings the Futurists wanted to render the dynamism of contemporary life.
4. The Futurists’ paintings of crowds and machines in motion were perhaps their most spectacular achievement, but they did tackleother subjects as well.
5. The invented ‘reality’ of art was brought into shocking juxtaposition with the kind of reality that surrounded everyone.
6. A matchbox, a safety-razor and a fountain pen were presented in quasi-heraldic fashion, almost as if they were images on an inn sign.
7. The fascination with machine forms had an inevitable impact on the decorative arts.
8. Parisian jewelers made pendants in the shape of shells, for heavy guns, and bracelets that seemed to be studded with ball-bearings.
9. People had started to study the products of industry in a new way, to savour industrial logic for its own sake.
Reading Comprehension and Discussion Tasks
Ex. 1, p. 20
Ex. 2, p. 21
1. The late nineteenth-century decorative arts existed within the broad context of the Symbolist movement.Symbolism in its first phase involved a dandified revolt against materialism, moralism, rationalism. Symbolism was the emphasis on emotions, feelings, ideas, and subjectivity rather than realism.
Later, a new generation began to feel that there was something even more fascinatingly brutal in the heart of their own society – the machine.
The Italian Futurists established mechanical objects and the products of industry as key subjects in modern art. The Futurists in their paintings wanted to render the dynamism of contemporary life – the movements of crowds in cities, and the rapid motion of an automobile or a train. Duchamp presented ordinary mass-produced objects as if they were works of art
The Cubists gloried in the banality of much of their source material. The collage was the key invention of Synthetic Cubism – featured scraps of newspaper, old labels, fragments of wallpaper, in fact all kinds of industrial detritus.
The Dadaists presented mass-produced objects completely unaltered within a fine art context. Duchamp presented ordinary mass-produced objects as if they were works of art. The American artist Stuart Davis, heavily influenced by French Cubism, took the Lucky Strike package as the subject-matter for a picture. Gerald Murphy, seems to be saying that industrial products, trivial and little considered, are in fact the emblems of a whole civilization and tell more about it than things with much greater pretensions to significance.
Pop artwas an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950s in Britain and the late 1950s in the United States. By creating paintings or sculptures of mass culture objects and media stars, the Pop art movement aimed to blur the boundaries between "high" art and "low" culture. The concept that there is no hierarchy of culture and that art may borrow from any source has been one of the most influential characteristics of Pop art.
The fascination with machine forms had an inevitable impact on the decorative arts.
The late nineteenth century design ceased to be pragmatic; men began to think of industry not as a brute force barely under the control of those who had created it but as the paradigm of an ideal world.
I am the Empire at the end of the decadence,
Who watches the large, white barbarians passing,
While composing lazy acrostic poems in a gilded style
In which the languor of the sun dances.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. Symbolists believed that art should represent absolute truths that could only be described indirectly. Thus, they wrote in a very metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. Jean Moreas published the Symbolist Manifesto ("Le Symbolisme") in Le Figaro on 18 September 1886. Moreas announced that symbolism was hostile to "plain meanings, declamations, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description", and that its goal instead was to "clothe the Ideal in a perceptible form" whose "goal was not in itself, but whose sole purpose was to express the Ideal". In this art, scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real world phenomena will not be described for their own sake; here, they are perceptible surfaces created to represent their esoteric affinities with the primordial Ideals.
Symbolism in its first phase involved a dandified revolt against materialism, moralism, rationalism.
Symbolism had an inexorable dynamism of its own. Artists and craftsmen who pursued ever more esoteric and refined effects and sensations eventually reached the point where both they and their audience began to feel permanently jaded. They felt a need to go beyond naturalism in art, and like other forms of art and entertainment at the time, such as ballet and the cabaret, Symbolism served as a means of escape. The first stage of the reaction is contained within the general current of Symbolism itself, and is summed up in the bold neo-primitivism of Paul Gauguin. As the result of that, a new generation began to feel that there was something even more fascinatingly brutal in the heart of their own society– the machine. The complex of that idea was represented by the Futurists, the Cubists, the Dadaists and the others in the different ways.
1. What unites the various artists and styles associated with Symbolism is the emphasis on emotions, feelings, ideas, and subjectivity rather than realism. Their works are personal and express their own ideologies, particularly the belief in the artist's power to reveal truth.
2. In terms of specific subject matter, the Symbolists combined religious mysticism, the perverse, the erotic, and the decadent. Symbolist subject matter is typically characterized by an interest in the occult, the morbid, the dream world, melancholy, evil, and death.
3. Instead of the one-to-one, direct-relationship symbolism found in earlier forms of mainstream iconography, the Symbolist artists aimed more for nuance and suggestion in the personal, half-stated, and obscure references called for by their literary and musical counterparts.
4. Symbolism provided a transition from Romanticism in the early part of the nineteenth century to modernism in the early part of the twentieth century. In addition, the internationalism of Symbolism challenges the commonly held historical trajectory of modern art developed in France from Impressionism through Cubism.
Paul Gauguin, James Whistler, Gustave Moreau, Odilon Redon, Jan Toorop, Aubrey Beardsley, Edvard Munch, Pierre Bonnard, Henri Rousseau were key artists.
The Symbolists’ rejection of naturalism and narrative in favor of the subjective representation of an idea or emotion would have a significant effect on the artwork of the twentieth century, particularly the formulation of German Expressionism and Abstraction.