MY HOME – LOVE IT OR HATE IT!
(by Ali Khazan)
A) I live in Blackheath in South London. London’s one of the largest and most exciting cities in the world, and there are advantages and disadvantages to living here.
B) The main advantage is that there’s a lot to do and see. In the centre of London there are tourist attractions like Madam Tussaud’s and the Science Museum, and there are all kinds of parks and historic buildings. I suppose that we don’t always make the most of it (use something for your benefit). We only visit places like the Tower of London when one of our relatives comes to visit!
C) Secondly, London is a great place for entertainment. All the new films come here first, and if we want to go to a pop concert or a big sports events, there’s always something right on our doorstep (very near to your home). And of course the shopping is great – there’s everything from department stores like Harrods to Camden Market.
D) Another advantage of living in London is that you can travel easily and quickly across the city on the underground. And we’ve got railway stations and airports to take you anywhere in the world.
E) Lastly, London is truly cosmopolitan. Kids at my school are from lots of different cultures, but that doesn’t stop us being friends. It’s good to mix with people from different backgrounds (the type of home and family that someone has). It stops you from becoming narrowminded (conservative and prejudiced).
F) But there are some major problems if you live in London. Like most other capital cities, it is noisy, polluted and congested with traffic. The traffic problem is so bad that they have recently introduced a congestion charge (demand of money) for central London. Drivers now have to pay if they want to take their cars to the city centre. Hopefully that will improve the situation.
G) Secondly, things are very expensive here – apparently it’s more expensive to live here than to live in any American city. For example, if you go to the cinema in the centre of London it can cost you £12. And to go just one step on the underground can cost you nearly £1.
H) But the worst problem about living in London is that, in general, people aren’t very friendly. Nobody will talk to strangers or help people in the street if they are in trouble. They don’t trust each other, and I think that’s because they are scared of becoming victims of crime. London has the highest crime rate in the country.
I) But in spite of (ignoring) these negative points, I still wouldn’t want to live outside of London. It’s my home – love it or hate it!
11.11. Complete the summary of the essay. Use the words from the box:
|activities / expense / home / multicultural / principal / shops / unfriendliness / variety|
For Ali, the (1) …….. advantage of living in London is the (2) …….. oа things that there are to see and do. He thinks that the (3) …….., the choice of leisure (4) …….. and the transport are good, and he likes the fact that London is a (5) …….. city. The disadvantages for him are the traffic, the (6) …….., people’s (7) …….. and the crime, but he doesn’t want to leave his (8) …….. .
11.12. Write the review of the text My Home – Love It or Hate It! (by Ali Khazan)
11.13. Now read the four models of academic writing and define: a survey, summary, questionnaire and introductory paragraph of the essay.
Model 1 Britain is an island that is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea. It consists of the mainland of England, Wales and Scotland. Ireland lies off the west coast of Britain. It comprises Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic. The United Kingdom is composed of Britain together with Northern Ireland. The capital city is London which is located south-east England.
In 1998 the population of the UK was nearly 59 million. The density of population is 240 people per square kilometre. In the UK English is the first language of most people. In western Wales, Welsh is spoken by many of the people, but few people in Scotland speak Gaelic.
Model 2 This essay will examine the problems facing secondary education in Britain today. It will examine the background to the problems, starting with the 1944 Education Act, which established universal free primary and secondary education. It will then look at problems associated with comprehensive schools. After this, it will examine the concept of the National Curriculum, the extended responsibilities and powers of school governors and the local management of schools. Finally, there will be an analysis of the relationship between central government and local education authorities, and a discussion of the problems relating to the financing of schools.
Model 3 Several years ago, some research was conducted at Manchester University into the amount of time that overseas postgraduate students spent listening to spoken English and speaking English. Sixty students co-operated by completing questionnaires.
It was found that an average of 22¾ hours per week were spent listening to English and only 6¼ hours speaking English to English people. An analysis of the time spent listening to English showed that lectures accounted for 5 hours and seminars 2 hours. An estimated 2½ hours were spent in serious discussion while 2 hours were devoted to everyday small-talk. Watching television accounted for 5¼ hours and listening to the radio 4½hours. Going to the cinema or theatre only accounted for an average of 45 minutes per week.
|1. Tick the colour you like best from those listed below.|
|□ red □ brown □ orange □ yellow □ white||□ blue □ grey □ green □ purple □ black|
|2. Which is your lucky or favourite number? ____________ (if you do not have one, write none) 3. What do you consider to be the ideal age to get married? Tick one of the age groups below.|
|16-20 years 21-25 years 26-30 years||31-35 years 36-40 years 41-45 years|
|If none of these, state what you think here ________________ Tick here if you do not believe in marriage.|
|4. Tick below the three most important qualities you would look for in your ideal partner.|
|lively cheerful attractive intelligent honest thrifty homely||hard-working ambitious natural kind romantic serious confident|
|5. What do you consider to be the ideal number of children in a marriage? Tick one of the following.|
|□ 0 □ 1 □ 2 □ 3||□ 4 □ 5 □ more than 5|
|Are there any other categories and/or questions that you would like to add to the questionnaire? © Pearson Education Limited 1999|
► You can photocopy a questionnaire, analyse the results and write a survey, based on the model above.
11.14. Study the information.
Styles differ according to the purpose of the text. Styles may be formal and informal. They are characterized in the following way:
Formal style is impersonal, with well developed paragraphs; it uses complex sentences with passive voice and participles; never uses colloquial English.
Informal style is personal, uses colloquial English, simple sentences and short forms.
Remember! Don’t mix formal and informal language.
11.15. Fill in gaps with the words from the box:
|introduction / balanced / conclusion / mistake / formal / styles / title / questionnaires|
1. It is important to remember, that writing …….. should not be mixed.
2. A common …….. is to add a conclusion that does not follow logically from what has been written before.
3. …….. may be a part of the survey.
4. A …….. is needed to show that the writing is finished.
5. At the beginning we write the …….. of the book and the author.
6. The …….. to many pieces of academic writing contains historical background.
7. Written English, like spoken English, may be …….. or informal.
8. When we discuss or argue in academic writing, we need to present a .... view.
11.16. Read the three models and answer the questions:
1. Which model is the most formal? Why?
2. Which model consists of short forms?
3. Which model is informal? Give reasons.
4. Which model is a mixture of styles? Why?
Model 1 I’ve never really been keen on going out in the snow – and I can’t understand why people get so excited about it. Your feet get soaking wet, your fingers nearly freeze off, and where’s the fun in having a snowball pushed down the back of your neck? I’d love to have enough money to be able to get away from here when it snows.
Model 2 Moreover, the combination of harsh winters and warm summers has an interesting effect on the personality of those who live in the more remote, rural parts of my country. Inhabitants of these areas tend to withdraw into themselves between December and March, becoming shy and reserved. In spring, however, they undergo a transformation – it’s really amazing! They’re just so incredibly different – you’d almost think you were in another country!
Model 3 Huge waves crashed onto the beach, sending sand and stones high into the air. Gale-force winds caused destruction to buildings along the seafront, and made walking in the street extremely hazardous. We spent the day sheltering in the lounge area of our hotel, wondering when, if ever, the storm would die down.
11.17. Study the information.
It is well known that project is a very popular kind of written work at British universities. Students usually do projects on a topic by their own choice or by the agreement of a lecturer. It is a piece of work that involves collecting detailed information about something.
Group projects can be a kind of mini-research. You can divide yourselves into small groups (perhaps 2-3) with each person responsible for one aspect or part of the activity: you will need to agree on who does what. Afterwards you will need to put all your information together and write a joint report.
Your project may contain a questionnaire that you need to construct for a specific purpose (perhaps to collect data or to obtain people’s opinions on issues or matters of concern by means of interviews). It may involve investigating various sources of information or references, perhaps in libraries. It may also involve personal observation of certain matters and comparing these observations with other people. Finally, some kind of conclusion will need to be agreed upon.
► In your group select one of the following projects and decide on a framework for collecting data etc, and who will be responsible for which part.
● The main subjects studied at different levels at your university.
● The history and development of the university / town, etc.
● Types of pollution and resulting problems in the town.
● Environmental Tourist Guide. Choose any piece of nature (river, lake, park, etc.).
1. Define the problem.
2. Find the solution.
3. Find out everything you can about it.
4. Use information from all sources (library, the Internet, surveys, etc.)
5. Use photos, drawings, slogans, etc. Anything!
Under the agreement with your lecturer you could modify the topics. You can propose other projects suitable for your locality.
UNIT 12 BUSINESS WRITING
1.advertisement– (n) реклама, объявление (в газете и т.п.)
2.apology– (n) извинение
3.apply –(v) подавать заявление (о приеме на работу, о получении визы и т.п.); application – обращение, просьба
4.assume – (v) предполагать, допускать
5.complain –(v) жаловаться;complaint – (n) жалоба, претензия
6.covering letter – сопроводительное письмо
7.curriculum vitae (CV) – жизнеописание, биография, резюме
8.enclosure (enc.) – (n) вложение
9.envelope – (n) конверт
10.file – (v) регистрировать (документ)
11.headed notepaper – официальный бланк (организации)
12.interview – (n) собеседование
13.memorandum (memo) – (n) служебная записка
14.on behalf of (p.p.) – от имени
15.position – (n) должность
16.quote – (v) цитировать
17.reference number (ref.) – регистрационный номер (документа)
18.re – касательно, относительно
19.salutation – (n) приветствие
12.1. Study the table below and match the types of business documents with their objectives.