1. Не is said to know all about it. 2. He was said to have known the whole truth about it. 3. Juri Gagarin is known to be the first man in the world to travel into space on April 12th, 1961. 4. He is supposed to be a very good film actor. 5. He is believed to be innocent of the crime. 6. Innocent people were announced to have been murdered by terrorists.7. The terrorist was announced to have been killed by his own bomb. 8. The exhibition of 19th-century French painting is expected to open by the end of next week. 9. Monet’s painting is reported to be on exhibition until the end of the month. 10. The President of Russia was reported to speak to the nation on television tonight. 11. The American astronaut Neil Armstrong is known to be the first man to walk on the moon in 1969. 12. He is considered to be the richest man in the world. 13. She is said to borrow money but not bother to return it. 14. You are expected to be an obedient and smart boy. 15. The students were supposed to come on time and take part in the marathon. 16. You are supposed to check your change before you leave the cashier. 17. He was expected to pass the mathematics exam. 18. Mother is said to know the right thing to do. 19. Sergei is thought to have a gift for languages. His English is known to be excellent. 20. Anna Mutter is believed to be one of the finest violinists in the world. 21. Leonardo da Vinci is known to be a great Italian painter of the Renaissance. The Mona Lisa is considered to be one of his most famous works. 22. True friends are known to be like diamonds, precious but rare. False friends are said to be like autumn leaves found everywhere.
Exercise II Translate the sentences
1. Many books are known to be published in our country every year. 2. You are supposed to graduate in four years. 3. Radium is said to be very radioactive. 4. This device was known to have been designed in that laboratory. 5. His invention is considered to be of great importance. 6. The sun is known to represent a mass of compressed gases. 7. The new rocket is reported to go into operation next year. 8. This type of rocket is supposed to have many advantages. 9. For a long time the atom was thought to be indivisible. 10. The helium atom was found to have two electrons. 11. I did not know what I was expected to say to that, so I said nothing. 12. He was said to be one of the most promising nuclear physicists. 13. He is said to be a good translator. 14. Roberta was known to be an honest and hard-working girl. 15. Clyde was expected to arrive at the weekend. 16. Becky and Tom were supposed to have stayed at the widow Douglas’. 17. The number of the unemployed is reported to be increasing with every year. 18. Many new textbooks are expected to be published soon. 19. The Moscow Underground is said to be the finest in the world. 20. A hare is known to run very fast. 21. The man was seen to take off his coat. 22. The diamond content of the mines in Western Yakutia is said to be in no way inferior to that of the world-famous South African mines. 23. My close friend is known to have learned “Eugene Onegin” by heart. 24. These devices are considered to be very effective. 25. The crisis was announced to be over but they should prepare for the worst.
Exercise III Paraphrase the following sentences
e.g.We heardthat a car stoppedoutside the door. A car was heard to stopoutside the door.
1. People consider the climate there to be very healthy. 2. It was announced that the Chinese dancers were arriving next week. 3. It is expected that the performance will be a success. 4. It is said that the book is popular with both old and young. 5. It is believed that the poem was written by an unknown soldier. 6. It is supposed that the well-known playwright is working on a new play. 7. It is reported that the flood has caused severe damage to the crops. 8. It was supposed that the crops would be rich that year. 9. It has been found that this mineral water is very good for the liver. 10. Scientists consider that electricity exists throughout space. 11. It is said that the weather in Europe was exceedingly hot last summer. 12. It was reported that five ships were missing after the battle.
Exercise IV Translate the sentences into English
1. Говорят, что это здание было построено в XVII веке. 2. Предполагают, что заседание закончится в десять часов. 3. Никак не ожидали, что холодная погода наступит так рано. 4. Оказалось, что мы уже когда-то встречались. 5. Вы, кажется, устали. 6. Условия работы оказались более трудными, чем предполагалось. 7. Вы случайно не знаете этого человека? 8. Книга, которую вы мне дали, оказалась скучной. 9. Новые автобусы оказались очень удобными. 10. Из трех сестер Бронте Шарлотта считается наиболее талантливой. 11. Как известно, английская писательница Войнич жила в течение нескольких лет в Петербурге и изучала русскую литературу. Считают, что русская литература оказала влияние на ее творчество. 12. Ваш приятель, кажется, очень интересуется древней историей. 13. Известно, что римляне построили на Британских островах хорошие дороги. 14. Полагают, что поэма «Беовульф» была написана в VIII веке. 15. Вальтер Скотт считается создателем исторического романа. 16. Сообщают, что экспедиция достигла места назначения. 17. Я случайно знаю номер его телефона. 18. Он оказался хорошим спортсменом. 19. Он, кажется, пишет новую статью: кажется, он работает над ней уже две недели. 20. Я случайно встретил его в Москве. 21. Полагают, что они знают об этом больше, чем хотят показать. 22. Джим оказался храбрым мальчиком. 23. Рочестер случайно встретил Джейн по дороге домой. 24. Говорят, что он работает над своим изобретением уже несколько лет. 25. Говорят, что эта статья переведена на все языки мира. 26. Вы, кажется, много читали до поступления в университет. 27. Ожидают, что они выиграют этот матч. 28. Она, казалось, читала целый день. 28. Он, казалось, угадал правду. 30. Она, кажется, думает, что это его вина. 31. Ее рассказ, кажется, очень странный, но правдивый. 32. Думают, что неисправная электропроводка вызвала пожар.
Conditionals or Conditional Sentences
Exercise I Make the First Conditionals
1) If I …(go) out tonight, I …(go) to the cinema.
2) If you …(get) back late, I …(be) angry.
3) If we …(not/see) each other tomorrow, we …(see) each other next week.
4) If he …(come) , I …(be) surprised
5) If we …(wait) here, we …(be) late
6) If we …(go) on holiday this summer, we …(go) to Spain.
7) If the weather …(not/improve) , we …(not/have) a picnic.
8) They …(go) to the party if they …(be) invited.
9) If I …(not/go) to bed early, I …(be) tired tomorrow
10) If we …(eat) all this cake, we …(feel) sick .
11) She …(stay) in London if she …(get) a job
12) If you …(not/want) to go out, I …(cook) dinner at home.
13) I …(come) early, if you …(want).
14) He …(not/get) a better job if he …(not/pass) that exam.
15) I …(buy) a new dress if I …(have) enough money
16) She …(cook) dinner if you …(go) to the supermarket.
17) They …(go) on holiday if they …(have) time.
18) We …(be) late if we …(not/hurry)
19) She …(take) a taxi if it …(rain).
20) I …(not/go) if you …(not/come) with me
Exercise II Fill the gap using the verb in brackets. Three gaps need a negative verb and watch out for the third person S!
If Clare ____________ late again, the hockey trainer will be furious. (to arrive)
You’ll be sorry if you ___________________ for your exams. (to revise)
We ___________________ if the weather's good. (to go)
They ___________________ you if you wear a wig and dark glasses. (to recognise)
If the bus ___________________ on time, I won't miss the football. (to be)
If you ___________________ your homework now, you'll be free all tomorrow. (to do)
We___________________ out if there's no food at home. (to eat) You’ll find life much easier if you ___________________ more often. (to smile)
If it’s hot, we___________________ for a swim. (to go)
You’ll do it better if you ___________________ more time over it. (to take)
If she ___________________ practicing, she’ll get better. (to keep)
Mum will be very sad if Jim ___________________ Mother’s Day again. (to forget)
I___________________ so happy if I pass the exam. (to be)
You’ll be really tired tomorrow if you __________________to bed soon. (to go)
The government ___________________ the next election if they continue to ignore public opinion. (to lose)
If Valencia FC win the Spanish football league, I___________________ my hair blue. (to dye)
Exercise III Complete the sentences
1. If you _________ greasy food, you will become fat. 2. If your sister goes to Paris, she _________ a good time. 3. If he _________ that, he will be sorry. 4. If I leave now, I ________ in New York by 8:00 PM. 5. You ________on your test if you don't study. 6. They won't know the truth if you ________ them. 7. If I bake a cake, ________ have some? 8. If he ________ you, will you answer the phone? 9. If you don't go to the party, I ________ very upset. 10. If you get a haircut, you ________ much better.
REMEMBER:The second conditional is used to talk about unreal situations in the present (things that are impossible, that won't happen, etc.)