It has been pointed, out (see pp. 24-25) that many English words have no regular equivalents, and a number of techniques has been suggested for rendering the meanings of such equivalent-lacking words in TT. Now the practising translator most often has to resort to such techniques when he comes across some new-coined words in the source text or deals with names of objects or phenomena unknown to the TL community (the so-called "realia").
New words are coined in the language to give names to new objects, or phenomena which become known to the people. This process is going on a considerable scale as shown by the necessity of publishing dictionaries of new words. (See, for example, 'The Barnhart Dictionary of New English 1963-1972", London, 1973, with more than 5,000 entries). With the English vocabulary constantly expanding, no dictionary can catch up with the new arrivals and give a more or less complete list of the new words. Moreover there are numerous short-lived lexical units created ad hoc by the English-speaking people in the process of oral or written communication. Such words may never get in common use and will not be registered by the dictionaries but they are well understood by the communicants since they are coined on the familiar structural and semantic models. If someone is ever referred to as a "Polandologist", the meaning will be readily understood against such terms as "Kremlinologist" or "Sovietologist". If a politician is called "a nuclearist", the new coinage will obviously mean a supporter of
nuclear arms race. "A zero-growther" would be associated with some zero-growth theory or policy and so on.
When new words come into being to denote new objects or phenomena, they naturally cannot have regular equivalents in another language. Such equivalents may only gradually evolve as the result of extensive contacts between the two nations. Therefore the translator coming across a new coinage has to interpret its meaning and to choose the appropriate way of rendering it in his translation. Consider the following sentence: "In many European capitals central streets have been recently pedestrianized.'1 First, the translator will recognize the origin of "pedestrianize" which is coined from the word "pedestrian" — «пешеход» and the verb-forming suffix -ize. Then he will realize the impossibility of a similar formation in Russian (опешеходить!) and will opt for a semantic transformation: «движение транспорта было запрещено», «улицы были закрыты для транспорта» or «улицы были отведены только для пешеходов».
As often as not a whole set of new words may enter in common use, all formed on the same model. Thus, the anti-segregation movement in the United States in the 1960's introduced a number of new terms to name various kinds of public demonstrations formed from a verb + -in on the analogy of "sit-in": "ride-in" (in segregated buses), "swim-in" (in segregated swimming pools), "pray-in" (in segregated churches) and many others.
Various translators may select different ways of translating a new coinage, with several substitutes competing with one another. As a rule, one of them becomes more common and begins to be used predominantly. For instance, the new term "word-processor" was translated into Russian as «словообработчик», «словопроцессор» and «текстопроцессор», the last substitute gaining the upper hand. The translator should carefully watch the development of the usage and follow the predominant trend.
Similar problems have to be solved by the translator when he deals with equivalent-lacking words referring to various SL realia. As often as not, the translator tries to transfer the name to TL by way of borrowing, loan word or approximate equivalents. Many English words have been introduced in Russian in this way: «бейсбол» (baseball), «небоскреб» (skyscraper), «саквояжники» (carpet baggers), etc. Quite a number of equivalent-lacking words of this type, however, still have no established substitutes in Russian, and the translator has to look for an occasional equivalent each time he comes across such a word in the source text. Mention can be made here of 'filibustering", "baby-sitter", "tinkerer", "know-how", "ladykiller", and many others.
A large group of equivalent-lacking English words includes words of general semantics which may have a great number of substitutes in Russian
which cannot be listed or enumerated. These are such words as "approach, control, corporate, pattern, record, facility", etc. Numerous lexical units of this type are created by conversion especially when compound verbs are nominalized. What is "a fix-up" for example? It can refer to anything that is fixed up. And "a set-up" is anything that is set up, literally or figuratively. The translator is expected to understand the general idea conveyed by the word and to see what referent it is denoting in each particular case.
Special attention should be paid to English conjunctions and prepositions which are often used differently from their apparent equivalents in Russian and are, in fact, equivalent-lacking. Such common conjunctions as "when, if, as, once, whichever" and some others are not infrequently the cause of errors in translation and should be most carefully studied.
Similar pitfalls can be set for the translator by such productive English "semi-suffixes" as -minded, -conscious, -oriented, -manship,etc.
In conclusion, let us recall that any word may become equivalent-lacking if the particular context makes it impossible to use its regular equivalent and forces the translator to resort to some semantic transformation.
Translating equivalent-lacking words calls for a good deal of ingenuity and imagination on the part of the translator who should be well trained to use the appropriate semantic transformations, whenever necessary. At the same time he must be prepared to look for new ways of solving his problems whenever the standard methods cannot be applied to the particular context.
I. Interpret the meaning of new words in the following sentences and suggest their Russian substitutes.
1. Galaxies take something like 10 billion years to evolve, which is comparable to the age Big Bangers give to the universe. 2. It is one thing to lambaste the tyranny of diplomaism, but quite another to expect nations to function without high standards of excellence. 3. On most US campuses these days grantmanship — the fine art of picking off research funds - is almost as important to professional prestige as the ability to teach or carry out research. 4. Though her French was not very good and my own regrettably Franglais, we used to read the roles to each other. 5. His political views are an odd mixture of the doctrines of free enterprise and those of welfarists. 6. He noted that the Administration "faces a credibility gap of enormous proportions" with blacks. 7. The President played up again the alleged Soviet military superiority, especially the missile gap. 8. The US industrial and social system is delivering such "disproducts" as pollution and racial tension and no longer seems to be supplying the compensating effi-82
ciency. 9. The vaccine is the result of a new type of ultra high-speed centrifuge that is spinoff from atomic weapons work. 10. Throw-away umbrellas made of paper have just been marketed on an experimental basis by a Tokyo paper goods firm.
II. Translate the following sentences paying particular attention to adequate rendering into Russian of equivalent-lacking words.
1. Throughout the world fluid fuels are replacing solid fuels because of their technical advantages in transport, handling, storage and use. 2. The law required the use of the French language in addition to English ... It aroused a sensational, though temporary, backlash of English-speaking opinion. 3. Many politicians owe their success to charisma and demagogy rather than to high intelligence and honesty. 4. The girl tried to earn her living as baby-sitter in the neighbourhood. 5. Every morning he joined a group of young commuters living in the same condominium. 6. He was a born tinkerer and would never have a repairman in his house. 7. Last week the Biological Engineering Society celebrated the tenth anniversary of this broad interface between medicine and technology with a conference in Oxford. 8. What does being ahead mean when possessing more or less overkill cannot be translated into anything that is militarily or humanly meaningful? 9. There will of course be carping critics of the project among do-gooders, conservationists, starry-eyed liberals and wild-lifers. 10. Four potholers were found suffering from exposure yesterday after being missed for more than 12 hours.
III. Suggest appropriate substitutes for the words in bold type in the following sentences. Observe variations in the meaning of words of general semantics in various contexts.
1. Segregation and discrimination which was the pattern in the United States followed American Negroes to the battlefield. 2. Following the nazi pattern the junta made it a policy to victimize every active trade unionist. 3. Summarizing what it found among the 100 typical cases studied, the committee said it was a pattern of "low wages, broken health, broken homes and shortcomings in food and shelter". 4. We believe that the present anti-union campaign is a big business set-up. 5. The language of the anti-union laws of the 1920's was not so different from the Smith Act. It too was an elastic set-up, designed to pull hundreds into its thought-control dragnet. 6. The pre-war arms drive gave a spur to the expansion of production facilities, but it still further reduced the purchasing power of the people. 7. The enemy rushed new troops and facilities to the area. 8. Many teachers complain of the lack of educational facilities in the countryside.
IV. Translate the following sentences employing the semantic transformations suggested in
1. Already the reactionary offensive of Yankee imperialism was beginning to get the inevitable answer from the Latin America peoples (specification). 2. At seven o'clock a dull meal was served in the oakpanelled dining-room (specification). 3.1 apologize for stepping on your toe (generalization). 4. Now, more than two hours later, the big jet was still stuck, its fuselage and tail blocking rainway three zero (generalization). 5. He would cheer up somehow, begin to laugh again, and draw skeletons all over his slate, before his eyes were dry (modulation). 6. Unfortunately, the ground to the right which was normally grass covered, had a drainage problem, due to be worked on when winter ended (modulation). 7. He had an old mother whom he never disobeyed (antonymous translation). 8. No person may be reinstated to a position in the post service without passing an appropriate examination (antonymous translation). 9. When she reached the house she gave another proof of her identity (explication). 10. In one of his whistle-stop speeches the Presidential nominee briefly outlined his attitude towards civil rights program (explication).
V. Note the use of the conjunctions in the following sentences. Suggest the appropriate Russian translations.
1. The Prime Minister will arrive on Friday when he will address the House of Commons. 2. Two workers were injured when a fork-lift fell over. 3. Problems have arisen when individuals have decided to make changes in the layout of the offices. 4. Every day the US press contains some malignant attack directed against the common people of Britain, who are accused of loafing and malingering at work, while demanding high wages and expensive social services. 5. If there was anything that he hated, it was a woman with pointed finger nails. 6. Her knowledge of things and people seemed precise and decided, if not profound. 7. He has been to Warwick fifty times, if he has been there once. 8. The postmaster should deposit at the bank daily returns one half hour before closing of either the post office or the bank, whichever is earlier. 9. Change oil every 6 months or at. 12,000 km. intervals, whichever is earlier.