1. Baroque space contrasted with the static, defined space of the ... Renaissance.
a) Higher b) the Highest c) High
2. The Baroque tended toward ...architectural forms and surfaces,
a) free b) freer c) the freest
3. In Protestant regions architecture was ... and developed a sober, quiet monumentality.
a) the most restrained b) restrained c) more restrained
4. In the Protestant countries and France architecture was ..., formal, and precise.
a) more geometric b) the most geometric
5. Dome des Invalides, Paris is generally agreed to be ... church of the last half of the 17th century in France.
a) finer b) finest c) the finest
II. Choose the right sentences.
1. During the Baroque period architecture and sculpture became pictorial.
a) Baroque architects and sculptors used luxurious materials.
b) "Baroque" means imperfectly shaped pearl.
c) Baroque architects and sculptors used the methods of painting.
2. Baroque art was concerned with vivid colours, hidden light sources and elaborate contrasting surface structures.
a) Baroque art was characterized by vivid colours, hidden light sources and elaborate contrasting surface structures.
b) The Baroque never exploited hidden light sources.
c) The Baroque developed from the early 17th century to the mid 18th century.
3. This style contrasted markedly with the High Renaissance and Mannerism.
a) The Baroque resembled the High Renaissance and Mannerism.
b) The Baroque had little in common with the High Renaissance and Mannerism.
c) The Mannerist period featured the frustrating conflict of unbalanced spaces.
4. In Protestant regions architecture was restrained.
a) In Protestant regions architecture was austere.
b) In Protestant regions architecture had free and active forms.
5. Domes des Invalides is the finest church of European Baroque Architecture.
a) Domes des Invalides is the finest church of the 18th century.
b) Domes des Invalides was built in 1675.
c) Domes des Invalides is a masterpiece of European Baroque architecture.
III. Circle a), b), or c) to complete the following sentences.
1. The term "Baroque" was used by philosophers ...
a) during the period of the Enlightenment
b) during the Middle Ages
c) in ancient times
2. During the Baroque period architecture and sculpture became ...
a) illusionistic b) realistic c) pictorial
3. Baroque architecture was a means of propagating ...
a) faith b) atheism c) anarchism
4. Mannerism is the term applied to certain aspects of...
a) social life b) artistic style
c) scientific research
5. The Baroque rapidly developed into two separate ...
a) forms b) sides c) parts
Read the text and speak on the difference between the Baroque and Rococo.
During the period of the Enlightenment (about 1700 to 1780), various currents of post-Baroque art and architecture evolved. A principal current, generally known as Rococo, refined the robust architecture of the 17th century to suit elegant 18th-century tastes. Vivid colours were replaced by pastel shades; diffuse light flooded the building volume; violent surface relief was replaced by smooth flowing masses with emphasis only at isolated points. Churches and palaces still exhibited an integration of the three arts, but the building structure was lightened to render interiors graceful and ethereal. Interior and exterior space retained none of the bravado and dominance of the Baroque but entertained and captured the imagination by intricacy and subtlety.
By progressively modifying the Renaissance-Baroque horizontal separation into discrete parts, Rococo architects obtained unified spaces, emphasized structural elements, created continuous decorative schemes, and reduced column sizes to a minimum. In churches, the ceilings of side aisles were raised to the height of the nave ceiling to unify the space from wall to wall (Church of the Carmine, Turin, Italy, 1732, by Filippo Juvarra; Pilgrimage Church, Steinhausen, near Biberach, Germany, 1728, by Domini-kus Zimmermann; Saint-Jacques, Luneville, France, 1730, by Germain Boffrand.
to evolve — происходить, возникать
current — течение
robust — крепкий; сильный; грубый
to replace — заменять
to flood — литься цотоком
flowing — текущий
ethereal — легкий, воздушный
to retain — сохранять, поддерживать
to entertain — занимать, извлекать
to capture — захватывать, увлекать
intricacy — запутанность, сложность
subtlety — тонкость, нежность
discrete — раздельный, состоящий из разрозненных частей
to obtain — получать, приобретать
to reduce — сокращать, уменьшать
I. Choose the right verb.
1. Vivid colours were ... by pastel shades.
a) replaced b) chosen c) created
2. Smooth flowing masses ... emphasis only at isolated points,
a) exhibited b) had c) separated
3. By progressively modifying the Renaissance-Baroque horizontal separation into discrete parts, Rococo architects ... unified spaces.
a) reduced b) obtained c) retained
4. Rococo architects emphasized structural elements, ...continuous decorative schemes, and reduced column sizes to a minimum.
a) described b) borrowed c) created
5. In churches, the ceilings of side aisles were raised to the height of the nave ceiling to ... the space from wall to wall.
a) unify b) divide c) close
1. Why is this style called Neoclassicism?
2. How did excavations at the newly discovered ancient cities influence Neoclassicism?
3. What are the finest examples of this style?
Read the text and tell about the qualities of Neoclassical architecture.
The classicism that flourished in the period of 1750-1830 is often known as Neoclassicism, in order to distinguish it from the classical architecture of ancient Rome or of the Renaissance.
The search for the intellectual and architectural truth characterized the period. Stylistically this began with an onslaught on Baroque architecture, which — with its emphasis on illusion and applied ornament — was felt to be manifestly untruthful.
Essentially representing a new taste for classical serenity and archaeo-logically correct forms, 18th-century classicism manifested itself in all the arts.
The discovery, exploration, and archaeological investigation of classical sites in Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor were crucial to the emergence of Neoclassicism.
The centre of international Neoclassicism was Rome. The cradle of Italian antiquities, it provided the stage, but the leading actors in the Neoclassical drama were French, German, or English; very little was contributed by Italians to this new movement. The centre of activity was the French Academy. The winners of the Academy's Prix de Rome went to Italy to study the monuments firsthand. The projects produced by the French Prix de Rome winners are characterized by their grandeur of scale; strict geometric organization; simplicity of geometric forms; Greek or Roman detail; dramatic use of columns, particularly to articulate interior spaces and create urban landscapes; and a preference for blank walls and the contrast of formal volumes and textures. The same qualities describe Neoclassical architecture as it was to emerge throughout Europe and in America.
search — поиск
onslaught — нападение, атака
serenity — ясность
to manifest — проявлять
exploration — изучение, исследование
crucial — решающий
emergence — появление
cradle — колыбель
to contribute — вносить вклад
to articulate — выделять
I. Complete the following sentences.
1. Stylistically this began with an onslaught on ...
a) Romanesque architecture
b) Greek architecture
c) Baroque architecture
2. The excavations of classical sites were held in Italy, Greece, and
a) Asia Minor
3. The projects produced by the winners are characterized by ...
a) rich floral decorations
b) stained glass windows
c) a preference for blank walls
4. There were also the strict geometric organization and ...
a) simplicity of geometric forms
b) spatially complex compositions
c) massive walls and round arches
5. Neoclassicism emerged throughout Europe and in ...
THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE TURN OF THE CENTURIES
1. When did Art Nouveau develop?
2. What outstanding architects of Art Nouveau do you know?
3. How is this style called in Russia?