1. Pat and Jack were in London for the first time. During a tour of the shops in the West End they came to an expensive-looking barber's. "Razors!" exclaimed Pat. "You want one, don't you? There's a beauty there for twenty-five bob,1 and there's another for thirty bob. Which would you sooner have?" "A beard," said Jack, walking off.
2. The children were in the midst of a free-for-all.2 "Richard, who started this?" asked the father as he came into the room. "Well, it all started when David hit me back."
3. That night, as they cold-suppered together, Barmy cleared his throat and looked across at Pongo with a sad sweet smile. "I mean to say, it's no good worrying and trying to look ahead and plan and scheme and weigh your every action, because you never can tell when doing such-and-such won't make so-and-so happen — while, on the other hand, if you do so-and-so it may just as easily lead to such-and-such."
4. When Conan Doyle arrived in Boston, he was at once recognized by the cabman whose cab he engaged. When he was about to pay his fare, the cabman said:
"If you please, sir, I should prefer a ticket to your lecture."
Conan Doyle laughed. "Tell me," he said, "how you knew who I was and I'll give you tickets for your whole family."
"Thank you, sir," was the answer. "On the side of your travelling-bag is your name."
5. An old tramp sailed up to the back door of a little English tavern called The George and Dragon and beckoned to the landlady.
"I've had nothing to eat for three days," he said. "Would you spare an old man a bite of dinner?"
"I should say not, you good-for-nothing loafer," said the landlady and slammed the door in his face.
The tramp's face reappeared at the kitchen window. "I was just wonderin'," he said, "if I could 'ave a word or two with George."
6. "Where are you living. Grumpy?" "In the Park. The fresh-air treatment is all the thing nowadays."
7. Arriving home one evening a man found the house locked up. After trying to get in at the various windows on the first floor he finally climbed upon the shed roof and with much difficulty entered through a second-story window. On the dining-room table he found a note from his absent-minded wife: "I have gone out. You'll find the key under the door mat."
8. One balmy, blue-and-white morning the old woman stood in her long, tidy garden and looked up at her small neat cottage. The thatch on its tip-tilted roof was new and its well-fitting doors had been painted blue. Its newly-hung curtains were gay... Bird-early next morning Mother Farthing went into the dew-drenched garden. With billhook and fork she soon set to work clearing a path to the apple tree.
(From Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator by R. Dahl)
III. Identify the neutral compounds in the word combinations given below and write them out in 3 columns:
A. Simple neutral compounds. B. Neutral derived compounds. C. Neutral contracted compounds.
An air-conditioned hall; a glass-walled room; to fight against H-bomb; a loud revolver-shot; a high-pitched voice; a heavy topcoat; a car's windshield; a snow-white handkerchief; big A. A. guns; a radio-equipped car; thousands of gold-seekers; a big hunting-knife; a lightish-coloured man; to howl long and wolf-like; to go into frantic U-turns;1 to fix M-Day2.
IV. Arrange the italicized compounds in the following extracts into two groups: A. Idiomatic compounds. B. Non-idiomatic compounds. Define the structural type of the compounds under study.
1. The mammal1 husband originates from a man in love. Love is only a temporary transient state, which is lost altogether when the man in love turns into a husband. All this is very much the same as the spring love-singing with blackbirds. In the morning, scarcely out of bed, the husband is surprised at being served very hot tea. This proves that his knowledge of the elementary laws of physics is very poor, for he is obviously unaware of the fact that water boils at 100 °C, irrespective of one's being or not being, in a hurry to get to work. Then he shows his annoyance if he has not got a fresh handkerchief. At such moments he is venomous, and it is better to keep out of his way. 2. We've some plain, blunt things to say and we expect the same kind of answers, not a lot of double-talk. 3. Picture the dining-room of the John Grier Home with its oil-cloth-covered tables, and wooden-handed knives and forks. 4. Being a matchmaker is one thing. A match-breaker is something other. 5. She could imagine the polite, disinterested tone, the closed-down, non-giving thin expression on the thin, handsome lady-killer face, still tan with the mountain sun. 6. Crane's brother had played fullback on the football team, but the brothers had rarely been seen together, and the fact that the huge, graceful athlete and the scarecrow bookworm were members of the same family seemed like a freak of eugenics to the students who knew them both. 7. On a giant poster above the entrance, a gigantic girl in a nightgown pointed a pistol the size of a cannon at a thirty-foot-tall man in a dinner jacket. 8. So the fellow took Barmy out, and there was the girl sitting in a two-seater. The girl stared at him, dropping a slice of bread-and-butter in her emotion.
V. Arrange the compounds given below into two groups;
A. Idiomatic. B. Non-idiomatie. Say whether the semantic change within idiomatic compounds is partial or total. Consult the dictionary if necessary.
Light-hearted, adj.; butterfly, n.; homebody, n.; cabman, п.; medium-sized, adj.; blackberry, п.; bluebell, п.; good-for-nothing, adj.; wolf-dog, п.; highway, n.; dragonfly, n.; looking-glass, n.; greengrocer, n.; bluestocking, n.; gooseberry, n.; necklace, n.; earthquake, n.; lazy-bones, n.
VI. Identify the compounds in the word-groups below. Say as much as you can about their structure and semantics.
Emily, our late maid-of-all-work; a heavy snowfall; an automobile salesman; corn-coloured chiffon; vehicle searchlights, little tidbit2 in The Afro-American;3 German A. A. fire;4 a born troubleshooter; to disembark a stowaway,5 an old schoolmate; a cagelike crate; a slightly stoop-shouldered man; a somewhat matter-of-fact manner; a fur-lined boot; to pick forget-me-nots and lilies-of-the-valley; a small T-shirt; a sportscar agency.
VII. Say whether the following lexical units are word-groups or compounds. Apply the criteria outlined in the foregoing text to motivate your answer.
Railway platform, snowman, light dress, traffic light, railway station, landing field, film star, white man, hungry dog, medical man, landing plane, top hat, distant star, small house, green light, evening dress, top student, bluecoat,1 roughhouse,2 booby trap;3 black skirt, medical student, hot dog, blue dress, U-shaped trap, black shirt4.
VIII. Find shortenings in the jokes and extracts given below and specify the method of their formation.
1. Brown: But, Doc, I got bad eyes! Doctor: Don't worry. We'll put you up front.5 You won't miss a thing.
2. "How was your guard duty yesterday, Tom?"
"О. К. I was remarkably vigilant."
"Oh, yes. I was so vigilant that I heard at once the relief sergeant approaching my post though I was fast asleep."
3. "Excuse me, but I'm in a hurry! You've had that phone 20 minutes and not said a word!" "Sir, I'm talking to my wife."
4. Two training planes piloted by air cadets collided in mid-air. The pilots who had safely tailed out were interrogated about the accident:
"Why didn't you take any evasive action to avoid hitting the other plane?"
"I did," the first pilot explained, "I tried to zigzag. But he was zigzagging, too, and zagged when I thought he was going to zig."
5. Any pro6 will tell you that the worst thing possible is to overrehearse.
6. Hedy cut a giant birthday cake and kissed six GIs7 whose birthday it was.
7. A few minutes later the adjutant and the O. D.1 and a disagreeable master sergeant were in a jeep tearing down the highway in pursuit of the coloured convoy.