Огнеупорный материал, бутовая кладка, дополнительная нагрузка, различные отделочные материалы, защитить несколькими слоями краски, нулевой цикл, сертификат о завершении строительства, строительство «под ключ», проектно-изыскательные работы, местные и иностранные субподрядчики.
IV. Read the text once again and make words from the letters.
SOME BUILDING PROFESSIONS
I. Listen, read and remember.
|bid||предложение цены, претензия|
|drain||дренажная труба, канава; дренировать, осушать|
|expose||выставлять (напоказ, на продажу); подвергать (опасности)|
|granolithic||сделанный из искусственного гранита|
|lathing||сетка (под штукатурку)|
|mould||форма, лекало, шаблон; формовать, делать по шаблону|
|render||воздавать; представлять; делать, превращать|
|request||просьба, требование; спрос|
|sheet||лист (бумаги); ~ iron листовое железо|
II. Scan the texst for about 10 minutes and find the sentences with words from I
Some Building Professions
A man, who has been an apprentice for some years in a building trade and has therefore enough skill *to be considered a skilled worker at his trade, is called tradesman or craftsman.
He may be a carpenter-and-joiner, bricklayer, mason, slater-and-tiler, plumber, electrician, house painter, glazier, floor-and-wall tiler, plasterer, paper-hanger, steeplejack, hot water fitter and so on.
Bricklayer is a tradesman who builds and repairs brickwork, lays and joints salt glazed stoneware drains, sets, chimney pots, manhole frames and fireplaces. He renders brickwork, including the insides of manholes. A sewer and tunnel bricklayer is a specialized bricklayer. In some districts of Greart Britain, bricklayers also fix wall and flooring tiles and slating and lay plaster and granolithic floors. But elsewhere these are plasterer's specialities.
Carpenter is a man who erects wood frames, fits joints, fixes wood floors, stairs and window frames, asbestos sheeting and other wall-board. He builds or dismantles Wood or metal formwork. The two trades of carpenter and joiner were originally the same, and most men can do both, but specialize in one or the other. In the USA the term "carpenter" includes a joiner. The word is derived from the French word charpente, which means a wood or metal framework.
Joiner is a man who makes joinery and works mainly at the bench on wood, which has been cut and shaped by the machinists. His work is finer than the carpenter's, much of it being highly finished and done in a joinery shop *which is not exposed to weather.
In Scotland a joiner is a carpenter-and-joiner.
Mason is a stone worker or stone setter. In Scotland and the USA a bricklayer is usually also a mason. A fixer or a fixer mason or a builder mason is a mason who sets prepared stones in walls, whether the stone be only facing or to the full wall thickness.
Plasterer is a tradesman who may be a fibrous plasterer or a plasterer in solid work. The latter lays successive coats of plaster or rendering and fixes fibrous plaster such as mould cornices and wall pattern. *He can use a horsed mould, erect lathing for plaster, and apply stucco.
A construction manager, or CM, provides services similar to those of general constractor, but represents client's interest during all phases of the building process — design as well as construction. They are usually paid a negotiated fee for the scope of services rendered.
For example, working with the architect during design, the CM provides updated cost projections so that a client will know probable costs, which the project evolves. A general constractor, however, doesn't usually enter the scene until after the design is complete.
The CM decides who bids the job, picks up the request for invitation to bid, evaluates the bids, and awards work to the most reasonable bidder. The CM also prepares contracts and sends them out to the subcontractors. The owner signs the contracts with each subcontractor, unlike a general constractor who signs these contracts. As a result, the subcontractors are under the CM's direction.
The CM may also be responsible for the safety of workers on the construction site.
III. A few explanations to the text.
1. ...to be considered a skilled worker at his trade — может считаться искусным в своем ремесле
2. ...slater-and-tiler — кровельщик (мастер по укладке черепицы)
3. hot water fitter—теплотехник
4. which is not exposed to weather—который не подвержен погоде
5. Не can use horsed mould, erect lathing for plaster, and apply stucco — Он может использовать опалубку для бетона, крепить сетку под штукатурку и применять отделочный гипс.
IV. read and translate the text « Some Building Professions». Give equivalent English phrases to the following Russian ones.
Мастер по укладке черепицы, считаться искусным в своем ремесле, быть подверженным влиянию погоды, многослойная штукатурка, столярная мастерская, верхолаз, каменщик.
V. Find 13 pairs of synonyms.
VI. Find 8 pairs of antonyms.
MODERN BUILDING MATERIALS
I.Read the vocabulary to the text.
|consider||рассматривать обсуждать, обдумывать|
|cross-section||поперечное сечение, поперечный разрез, профиль|
|derive (from)||получать, извлекать, происходить|
|handle||брать руками, держать в руках|
|kiln||печь для обжига|
|span||промежуток времени, период времени|
|subject||(to) подвергать, подчинять|
II. A few explanations to the text.
1. ... the first joint of the fingers – первыми фалангами пальцев
2. ... for a vast number of purposes – для многих целей
3. ... and they can be easier machined – и их легче обработать
III. Read and translate the text.
Modern Building Materials
Some of the most important building materials are: timber, brick, stone, concrete, metal, plastics and glass.
Timber is provided by different kinds of trees. Timbers used for building purposes are divided into two groups called softwoods and hardwoods. Timber is at present not so much used in building construction, as in railway engineering, in mining and in the chemical industry where it provides a number of valuable materials.
However, timber is still employed as a building material in the form of boards. For the interior of buildings plywood and veneer serve a number of purposes.
A brick is best described as a "building unit". It may be made of clay by moulding and baking in kilns, of concrete, of mortar or of a composition of sawdust and other materials. In shape it is a rectangular solid and its weight is from 6.5 to 9 Ib.
There exists variety of bricks for different purposes: ordinary, hollow or porous, lightweight, multicolor bricks for decorative purposes, etc. Bricks are usually laid in place with the help of mortar.
The shape and convenient size of brick enables a man to grip it with an easy confidence and, because of this, brick building has been popular for many hundreds of years. The hand of the average man is large enough to take a brick and he is able to handle more than 500 bricks in an eight-hour working day.
It is necessary, therefore, for the "would be" bricklayer to practise handling a brick until he can control it with complete mastery and until he is able to place it into any desired position.
The brick may be securely handled by placing the hand over the surface of the upper part of a brick and by placing the thumb centrally down the face of the brick with *the first joints of the fingers1 on the opposite face. It is better to protect the thumb and the fingers with leather pads, which also prevent the skin from rough bricks.
Sometimes natural stones such as marble, granite, basalt, limestone and sandstone are used for the construction of dams and foundations. Marble, granite and sandstone are widely used for decorative purposes as well, especially with the public buildings.
Natural stone is used for foundations and for the construction of dams. The main varieties of building stone are basalt, granite, marble, sandstone and limestone.
Metals: Aluminium, principally in the form of various alloys, is highly valued for its durability and especially for its light weight, while brass is frequently used for decorative purposes in facing.
Steel finds its use in corrugated sheets for roofing, for girders, frames, etc. Various shapes are employed in construction.
Plastics are artificial materials used in construction work *for a vast number of purposes.2 Nowadays plastics, which are artificial materials, can be applied to almost every branch of building, from the laying of foundation to the final coat of paint. Synthetic resins are the main raw material for plastics. Plastics have some good advantages as they are lighter than metals, not subject to corrosion, *and they can be easier machined.3 Besides, they are inflammable, they can take any color and pattern, and they are good electrical insulators. More over, they possess a high resistance to chemical action.
A lot of decorative plastics, now available, have brought about a revolution in interior and exterior design. But plastics are used now not only for decoration. These materials are sufficiently rigid to stand on their own without any support. They can be worked with ordinary builders' tools.
Laminate is a strong material manufactured from many layers of paper or textile impregnated with thermosetting resins. This sandwich is then pressed and subjected to heat. Laminate has been devel oped for both inside and outside use. It resists severe weather conditions for more than ten years without serious deformation. As a structural material it is recommended for exterior work. Being used for surfacing, laminate gives the tough surface.
Foamed glass is a high-porosity heat insulating material, available in block made of fine-ground glass and a frothing agent.
Foamed glass is widely used in prefabricated house building, to ensure heat insulation of exterior wall panels, and in industrial construction.
Foamed glass has a high mechanical strength, is distinguished by moisture, vapour and gas impermeability. It is non-inflammable, offers resistance to frost, possesses a high sound adsorption, and it is easily sewn and nailed.
Structural foamed glass blocks designed to fill ceilings, and for making interior partitions in buildings and rooms, to ensure heat and sound insulation.
For insulation mineral wool or cinder wool is often resorted to.