Ø The Past Simple употребляется для описания действия, которое произошло сразу же после какого-либо другого действия в прошлом: Last Monday, Lisa and her husband fed the children when he came home.
Ø The Past Continuous употребляется для описания действия, которое произошло тогда, когда его прервали: Last Tuesday, Lisa was feeding the children when her husband came home.
Ø The Past Perfect употребляется для описания действия, которое произошло перед другим действием в прошлом: Last Friday, Lisa had already fed the children when her husband came home.
12.A Составь вопросы и краткие ответы:
1. “they/ spend/ 2000 pounds on their invention last year.” “No, _.”
2. “Misha/ see/ the researchers when they were making the experiment.” “Yes, _.”
3. “they/ get married/ twenty years ago.” “No, _.”
12.B Выбери наиболее подходящий вариант:
1. We went to that lecture last night/ tonight.
2. I already/ often get up early in the mornings.
3. “Are you going to the lab tonight?” “No, I went/ had gone/ had been going yesterday.”
4. “Did you see Lev?” “No/ he was leaving/ had been leaving/ had left by the time I arrived.”
5. “Where is Vanya?” “He was talking/ talked/ had talked on the phone when I saw him.”
6. “Did you enjoy your conference?” “Yes, we have stayed/ had stayed/ stayed in a fabulous hotel and the information was very interesting and new.”
7. “I like your report. Is it new?” “No. I had/ have/ have had it for ages.”
12.C Раскрой скобки:
• Hi Serega! I (not/ see) you for ages. How are you?
• I’m very well. Actually, I (just/ come back) from engineer conference.
• Really? That’s nice. Where (you/ go)?
• I (go) to Novosibirsk to declare my report. My scientific adviser (live) there.
• Yes, you (tell) me that, I think. (you/ have) a efficient time?
• Yes, it (be) efficiently. The flight was very long, though.
• Yes, you (look) quite tired.
• Well, I (just/ come) from the airport.
• Bye, Serezha. Have a good rest.
12.D Раскрой скобки:
1. “Did you manage to get to the bank yesterday?” “No, it (close) before I came.”
2. “I see you finally bought a new blue-ray.” “Yes, I (try) to fix the old one for ages when I decided to buy a new one.”
3. “Where did you go for dinner on your birthday?” “I (go) to the new Chinese restaurant in town.”
4. “What are you looking for?” “My keys. I (lose) them.”
5. “I’m tired. We (walk) all morning.” “Let’s stop & have something to eat, then.”
6. “What (you/ buy) your girl-friend for your date?” “I got her a pendant.”
7. “How did you break your arm?” “I broke it when I (train).”
8. “Did you enjoy your holiday?” “Well, it didn’t go the way I (plan) it, but it was fun.”
12.E Life on Earth is changing. Составь предложения как в примере:
ü Trees provide oxygen & homes for animals. However, trees are disappearing because of fires & logging. But many governments have started to plant new trees.
THE FACTS …
ü Trees/ provide/ oxygen & homes for animals.
1. Many different species of fish/ live on coral reefs.
2. Many people/ use/ coal & oil as fuel for heating in their homes.
3. Ocean life/ produce/ 90% of our oxygen.
THE CHANGES …
ü Trees/ disappear/ because of fires & logging.
1. Fish/ die/ because fishermen/ destroy/ coral reefs.
2. Coal & oil supplies/ decrease.
3. We/ pollute/ the oceans with rubbish.
THE ACTION TAKEN …
ü Many governments/ start/ to plant new trees.
1. Some fishermen/ stop/ fishing near coral reefs.
2. Many people/ change/ to other sources of fuel for heating.
3. We/ begin/ to recycle rubbish instead of throwing it all away.
|CHAPTER13||ROAD RULES AND REGULATIONS|
13.1 Прочитай, переведи и запомни Road Rules and Regulations in Russia:
The traffic and driving laws motorists need to know before taking to the road in Russia…
· Driving is on the right side of the road
· The minimum age to drive a car is 18
· Wearing of seat belts is mandatory in both front and back seats
· Speaking on a mobile phone while driving (without a handsfree device) is a serious offence
· Crossing a solid double white line is forbidden
· Turning right at a red light is not allowed when there is no special green arrow traffic light
· It is illegal for children under the age of 12 to travel in the front seat
· Picking up hitchhikers is illegal
· Dipped headlights must be used during the day
· It is illegal to drive a dirty car, especially with mud on the licence plates – fines for this range from R.800 to R.2,000
· A minimum of third-party insurance is compulsory
Note: Snow tyres are not mandatory in Russia in winter.
What to Carry in the Car
Drivers must carry at all times the originals of all the documents below, and traffic police can stop a car at any time for a check.
· Passport including a valid visa
· Migration card
· Valid driving licence
· Insurance policy
· Car registration paper
· Certificate of annual technical inspection
It is also mandatory to carry the following items:
· First-aid kit (it is advisable to include latex gloves and a sterile syringe)
· Fire extinguisher
· Emergency triangle sign
· A neon reflective vest
Speed limits are shown in kilometres per hour (Km/h). Inside built-up areas, the speed limit is 60 Km/h, 90 Km/h outside these zones, and 100 Km/h on highways. These apply to all types of roads.
The traffic police have the authority to issue fines on the spot as well as to suspend the driving licence of the offending driver or even to make an arrest in the case of drunk driving and to detain the vehicle.
Some common penalties for speeding include:
|Exceeding speed limit by 10-20 Km/h||Warning or R.100 fine|
|Exceeding speed limit by 20-40 Km/h||R.300 fine|
|Exceeding speed limit by 40-60 Km/h||R.1,000-1,500 fine|
|Exceeding speed limit by more than 60 Km/h||R.2,000-2,500, disqualification for 4-6 months or suspension of licence|
The toll system is relatively new in Russia. Plans started being developed in 2005, but very few toll roads have been introduced since. One completed toll road is the 18 Km section of the Lipetsk Highway M-4 from Moscow to Novorossiysk, where cars have to pay R.10 to pass. Charges are payable in cash.
Another new development is the toll section of the ‘Western High-Speed Diameter’ in St Petersburg, where cars passing the 5 Km toll road must pay R.30 during the day (07:00-23:00) and R.10 at night. Plans include being able to pay with a transponder or a smart card, both of which will offer different rates of discount from the standard fees payable at toll booths.
Some provincial administrations have also imposed tolls on some roads. One example is the road between Ostrov and the Latvian and Estonian borders in Pskov County in Western Russia, where tolls range from R.150-300 per car.
According to Russian law, traffic police have the right to stop a vehicle at any time and for any reason, for a road check. The driver is not obliged to exit the vehicle, but their documents and the papers of the car must be shown. The police may issue a ticket for a fine and keep the driving licence, but the driver’s identity papers and the vehicle papers should be returned.
Traffic police can impound and tow a car belonging to a driver who: is caught driving while intoxicated; refuses to take an alcohol test; cannot produce a driving licence, car registration papers or the documents confirming ownership of the car; has illegally stopped or parked the car in forbidden area: or if the car has faulty brakes or a faulty steering system.
If a car is towed, the driver will have to pay a fine for the offence committed, for the towing costs and the hourly fees for the time the car was impounded. These costs can amount to R.10,000 or more and fines must be paid in cash.
Russia has a zero tolerance policy to drinking and driving. If a driver is caught, the driving licence can be suspended for two years.
13.2 Прочитай, переведи и запомни Road rules of the United Kingdom:
There are some key British road rules to help awareness of different driving laws in foriegn countries.
Which Side of the Road?
In the United Kingdom, please drive on the LEFT side of the road.
Unique Country Driving Laws
· Do not use mobile phone to call or text while driving.
· On Roundabouts, drivers to the right have right of way.
· Use the outside right lane to overtake on motorways.
· There is a congestion charge when driving in London.
· Zebra crossings (black and white stripes on the road) give pedestrians right of way.
· There are speed cameras on all types of road.
For a standard rental vehicle with no trailers:
· Urban areas: 30 mph (48 km/h)
· Rural areas: 60 mph (96 km/h)
· Motorways: 70 mph (112 km/h)