THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE (Present Simple)
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THE PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE (Present Simple)



Глагол в Present Indefinite имеет следующие формы:

 

Утвердительная форма Вопросительная форма Отрицательная форма
I   We You} They   He She} It work     work   works Do     Do   Does   I   we { you} they   he {she } it work?     work?   work? I do not work (don't work) We You } do not work They (don't work)   He She } does not work It (doesn't work)
           

 

Present Indefiniteобразуется при помощи инфинитива без частицы “to”.

Например: We watch TV every evening.

В 3-ем лице единственном числе добавляется окончание – s .

Например: He reads books every evening.

Если глагол оканчивается на s, ss, ch, sh, tch, x, z, o , то добавляется - es .

Например: He goes to school every day.

Если глагол оканчивается на y , то она меняется на i, если перед ней стоит согласная буква.

Например: to study - he studies

to try – he tries

но:to play - he plays

to stay – he stays

Вопросительные и отрицательные формы Present Indefinite образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to do (который имеет форму do для всех лиц кроме 3-го лица единственного числа, где используется форма does). В вопросах вспомогательный глагол ставится перед подлежащим. Смысловой глагол употребляется после вспомогательного глагола без частицы to.

Например: Do you speak English?

Does he speak French?

Where does she live?

When do you get up?

Вопрос к подлежащему имеет прямой порядок слов, т.е. порядок слов повествовательного предложения, где сначала идет подлежащее, а потом сказуемое.

Например: Who knows this girl?

Which of you speaks English?

В отрицательных предложениях глагол do (does) ставится после подлежащего, за ним идет частица not и смысловой глагол без to. В разговорной речи чаще используются сокращенные формы don't и doesn't.

Например: I do not (don't) get up early.

He does not (doesn't ) like pop music.

В кратких ответах употребляется вспомогательный глагол в соответствующем лице.

Например:

– Do you like ice-cream? – Does he play the piano? – Yes, I do. (No, I don't). – Yes, he does. ( No, he doesn't).

 

Present Indefinite обозначает:

1. Обычные, повторяющиеся действия

Например:

They go to the seaside every summer. - Они ездят на море каждое лето.

В этом случае могут быть использованы следующие обстоятельства: every (day, year), often, usually, always, sometimes, never, as a rule, every other day, и т.д., которые обычно ставятся перед смысловым глаголом.

 

2. Действия и состояния, характеризующие человека.

Например:

She sings well. - Она хорошо поет.

 

3. Общепринятые истины.

Например:

The earth goes round the sun. - Земля вращается вокруг солнца.
Doctors treat patients. - Врачи лечат пациентов.

 

4. Действия, происходящие в настоящий момент (с глаголами, не употребляющимися в Continuous )

See love respect want know seem believe agree

Hear like dislike wish understand mean recognize allow

Notice hate prefer desire suppose remember refuse belong

Например:

I see Nick in the street. He is going home. - Я вижу Николая на улице. Он идет домой.

 

Have (в значении «обладать»)

Например:

I have a pen. У меня есть ручка.

но:

I am having breakfast now. – Я сейчас завтракаю.

 

Think(в значении «полагать, считать»)

Например:

What do you think about it? – Что ты об этом думаешь? (нас интересует мнение человека)

но:

What are you thinking about? You are so sad! - О чем ты думаешь? Ты такой грустный! ( нам интересен процесс размышления, а не мнение)

 

5. Действие, которое произойдет в будущем, в придаточных предложениях времени (после союзов when, after, before, till, until, as soon as, as long as, by the time), условия (после союзов if, unless, in case) и уступки (после союзов even if, even though, whatever, whenever, however).

Например:

We’ll have dinner as soon as Father comes. If the weather is fine tomorrow we’ll go for a walk. I won’t believe him whatever he says. – Мы будем обедать, как только придет отец. – Если завтра будет хорошая погода, мы пойдем гулять. – Я не поверю ему, что бы он ни сказал.

 

6. Действие в будущем, когда речь идет о расписаниях, программах и т.д. (например, транспорт)

Например:

What time does the film begin? The train leaves Moscow at 10.30. – Во сколько начнется фильм? – Поезд отправляется из Москвы в 10.30.

но:

What time are you meeting Nick? - Во сколько ты встречаешься с Николаем? (личная договоренность)

 

7. Present Indefiniteупотребляется в следующих предложениях:

Where do you come from? (= Where are you from?)- Откуда ты родом?

What do you do? (= What are you by profession?) - Чем ты занимаешься?

в предложениях типа :“Почему бы тебе не бросить курить?”

Например: Why don’t you give up smoking?

 

EXERCISES

Ex.1. Read the verbs in the 3 rd person singular:

Watch, pass, catch, push, touch, guess, finish, reach, miss, hate, want, refuse, recognize, say, stay, wash, answer, dance, like, read, hope, use.

 

Ex.2. Put the verb into the correct form.

1.Good students ( work) hard. 2. It often (snow) in winter. 3. The shop (open) at 9 o’clock. 4. I (see) three children. 5. I ( understand) the text. 6. He (go) to the dentist twice a year. 7. Nick ( drink) coffee in the evening. 8. The child (like) to play in the yard. 9. They have a car and they ( use) it very often. 10. He (smoke) 20 cigarettes a day.

 

Ex.3. Correct the statements.

Pattern: The sun rises in the west.

- The sun doesn’t rise in the west. It rises in the east.

1.The sun goes round the earth. 2. Mice catch cats. 3.The River Volga flows into the Baltic Sea. 4.Water boils at 80 degrees centigrade. 5.It often snows in summer. 6.People go to bed in the morning. 7. It often rains in winter. 8. Vegetarians eat meat. 9. Men wear skirts. 10.The sun shines at night.

 

Ex.4. Use the sentences to make questions. Begin your question with the words in brackets.

Pattern: Nick plays football. (How often?)

- How often does Nick play football?

1.The students go to the cinema . (How often?) 2. We have dinner in the evening. (What time?) 3. My father works. (Where?) 4. People do stupid things. (Why?) 5. Benny watches TV. (When?) 6. I write with a pencil. (Where?) 7. Children receive a lot of presents. (When?) 8. Birds fly to warm countries. (When?) 9. We swim in summer. (Where?) 10. My parents ski in winter. (Where?)

Ex.5. Read quickly in the 3 rd person singular.

1.They often help their father. 2. They remember everything. 3. They live in Moscow. 4. They read newspapers in the evening. 5. They kiss their mother when they come from school. 6. His dogs always attack strangers. 7. Cars make a lot of noise. 8. They listen to the teacher. 9. They open the window in the morning because they like fresh air. 10. My friends like rock and they don’t like pop music. 11. They remember her address but they don’t remember her telephone number. 12. They live in small houses which have three rooms. 13. The students have examinations two times a year. 14. Shop-assistants sell food . 15. Our fellow students don’t get up early. 16. These children like chocolate and they don’t like porridge. 17. They don’t believe me. 18. They speak English very well.

 

Ex. 6. Make the sentences negative and interrogative.

1.They receive two letters a month. 2. Nick wants to read the newspaper. 3.They remember everything. 4. The first lesson begins at 8 o’clock. 5. My nephew lives in Moscow. 6. My cousins learn foreign languages. 7. Our students spend a lot of time in the club. 8. She likes classical music. 9. My aunt cooks well. 10. My niece often sings at parties. 11. His parents want to buy new furniture. 12. They write tests once a month.

 

Ex. 7. Make up disjunctive questions:

Pattern: He likes music.

- He likes music, doesn't he?

They don't live in Moscow.

- They don't live in Moscow, do they?

1.He knows the answer. 2. You like travelling by car. 3. He never travels second class. 4. He always carries his luggage himself. 5. They don’t like learning grammar. 6. He usually speaks very fast. 7. You don’t go on walking tours. 8. Your parents come from work very late. 9. He doesn’t take many suitcases when he travels on business. 10. You enjoy travelling light. 11. The last train leaves at midnight. 12. They never get seasick. 13. His sisters go to the library once a week. 14. He always gets to the railway station by taxi. 15. He hates seeing people off. 16. She doesn’t like cooking. 17. They receive a lot of newspapers. 18. He never agrees with his wife. 19. He books tickets at the booking/office. 20. It doesn’t rain in winter.

 

Ex. 8. Complete the sentences with a contrasting idea.

Pattern: Nick plays hockey well (football).

- Nick plays hockey well, but he doesn’t play football.

1.Our students like rock music (jazz). 2. My friend speaks English (French). 3. They write dictations every week (compositions). 4. She sings well (play the piano). 5. We go to the country-side in summer (in winter). 6. He gets up early on week-days (at the week-end). 7. I usually have tea for breakfast (coffee). 8. They spend much money on books (on clothes). 9. He likes to swim in the sea (in the river). 10. She remembers his address (the telephone number).

 

Ex. 9.Answer the questions:

1.How do you usually get to the Institute? 2. Who cooks well in your family? 3. Do you like spring or autumn? 4. When do your lessons begin? 5. How many lesson do you have a day? 6. When does your father come home from work? 7. What do you do? 8. Where do you come from? 9. How much time does it take you to get home after classes? 10. Where does your best friend live. 11. Who wakes you up in the morning? 12. What sort of books do you read before going to bed? 13. When does the sun rise in summer? 14. Do you always understand the teacher? 15. Do you remember your friend’s telephone number? 16. When do your friends come to see you? 17. Who calls you every evening? 18. Do you always introduce your friends to your parents? 19. Does your mother speak German? 20. What newspapers does your father read? 21. Do you often go to the cinema? 22. How much does a ticket to the cinema cost?

 

Ex. 10. Put all possible questions to the statements:

Every evening my brother plays chess with his friends.

Some students work in summer.

His family goes to the seaside every year.

 

Ex. 11. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Как часто ты встречаешься с друзьями? 2. Ты всегда так долго говоришь по телефону? 3. Мой старший брат терпеть не может мыть посуду и всегда просит меня сделать это. 4. Наш учитель по литературе знает наизусть много стихотворений. 5. Что ты имеешь в виду? 6. На улице темно, я ничего не вижу. 7. Сколько времени тебе обычно требуется, чтобы сделать домашнее задание? 8. Он всегда приходит вовремя. 9. Ты редко обедаешь дома, не так ли? 10. Студенты любят танцевать в клубах. 11 . Интересно, кто из вас играет на гитаре (the guitar)? 12. Летом солнце заходит (to set) поздно. 13. Его мама – учительница. Она преподает французский язык в школе. 14. Этот студент никогда не работает в библиотеке. 15. Мой племянник ездит на море каждое лето.

 

Ex. 12. Open the brackets:

1. I’ll see you off if (have enough time). 2. I’ll talk to him as soon as (come home). 3. He will understand everything when (know all the facts). 4. I’ll wait till (receive the letter). 5. They’ll stay in Moscow till (all the places of interest). 6. I’ll buy a new coat when (get some money). 7. He’ll see his parents before (leave for Moscow). 8. You’ll recognize him if (see his photo). 9. You’ll make a mistake if (not believe me). 10. I’ll let you know if (want to see you again).









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