Before reading text 4, learn the new terms.
Лекции.ИНФО


Before reading text 4, learn the new terms.



hardware — аппаратное обеспечение; аппара­тура; оборудование

software — программное обеспечение; про­граммные средства

system software — системное программное обеспечение

application software — прикладное программное обеспе­чение

firmware — встроенное /микропроцессорное программное обеспечение

visible units— видимый блок, устройство

procedure — процедура, процесс; метод, ме­тодика; алгоритм

to associate — соединять; объединять; связы­вать

associated documentation — соответствующая докумен­тация

to execute applications programs — выполнять приклад­ные программы

payroll — платежная ведомость

inventory control — инвентаризация; переучет

investment analyses — анализ инвестиций (ка­питаловложений)

to protect — защищать

read-only memory —постоянное запоминающее устройство (ПЗУ)

to refer to — относиться к; ссылаться на

to substitute — заменять; замещать

to cause — заставлять, вынуждать; причина, осно­вание

to accomplish — завершать, заканчивать; вы­полнять, осуществлять

performance — производительность; быстро­действие; рабочая характеристика

Text 4. Hardware, Software and Firmware,.

 

The units that are visible in any computer are the physical components of a data processing system, or hardware. Thus, the input, storage, processing and control devices are hardware. Not visible is the software — the set of computer programs, proce­dures, and associated documentation that make possible the effective operation of the computer system. Software programs are of two types: systems software and applications software.

Systems software are the programs designed to control the operation of a computer system. They do not solve specific problems. They are written to assist people in the use of the computer system by performing tasks, such as controlling all of the operations required, to move data into and out of a com­puter and all of the steps in executing an application program. The person who prepares systems software is referred to as a systems programmer. Systems programmers are highly trained specialists and important members of the architectural team.

Applications software are the programs written to solve spe­cific problems (applications), such as payroll, inventory control, and investment analysis. The word program usually refers to an application program, and the word programmer is usually a person who prepares applications software.

Often programs, particularly systems software, are stored in an area of memory not used for applications software. These protected programs are stored in an area of memory called read ­only memory (ROM), which can be read from but not written on.

Firmware is a term that is commonly used to describe cer­tain programs that are stored in ROM. Firmware often refers to a sequence of instructions (software) that is substituted for hard­ware. For example, in an instance where cost is more impor­tant than performance, the computer system architect might decide not to use special electronic circuits (hardware) to mul­tiply two numbers, but instead write instructions (software) to cause the machine to accomplish the same function by repeat­ed use of circuits already designed to perform addition.

 

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English for the following words and combinations.

Видимые устройства; система обработки данных; аппа­ратное обеспечение; набор компьютерных программ; со­ответствующая документация; эффективная работа; систем­ное программное обеспечение; прикладное программное обеспечение; системный программист; платежная ведо­мость; переучет; анализ инвестиций; прикладная програм­ма; работающий только в режиме чтения; постоянное за­поминающее устройство; последовательность команд; в случае; производительность; электронная цепь; умножать числа; заставить машину выполнять ту же функцию; вы­полнять сложение.

Exercise2. Answer the questions on the text.

1.What is hardware? 2. Give the definition of software. 3. What are the types of software? 4. What are systems software? 5. What kind of tasks do systems software perform? 6. Who pre­pares systems software? 7. What are applications software? 8. What problems do applications software solve? 9. What is firm­ware? 10. How can a computer system architect use firmware?

Exercise 3. Correct the false sentences.

1. The input, storage, processing and control devices are firmware.

2. The set of computer programs, proce­dures, and associated documentation are visible.

3. Systems software solve specific problems.

4. Applications software are the programs written to solve technical problems.

5. Firmware describe cer­tain programs that are stored on a RAM disk.

Exercise 4.Translate the word combinations with new words.

Architecture:communication architecture; computer archi­tecture; disk architecture; microprocessor architecture; network architecture; security architecture; system architecture; virtual architecture.

Software:system software; application software; database software; disk software; educational software; game software; management software; simulation software.

Hardware: computer hardware; device hardware; display hardware; memory hardware; mouse hardware; network hard­ware; system hardware; video hardware.

Procedure: accounting procedure; computational procedure; control procedure; data-processing procedure; decision proce­dure; error-correcting procedure; formatting procedure; instal­lation procedure; management procedure; solution procedure.

Protection:computer protection; data protection; device pro­tection; display protection; error protection; hardware protec­tion; software protection; resource protection; security protec­tion; system protection; virus protection.


Unit 5

Central Processing Unit and Storage

 

Before reading text 1, learn the new words:

primary / secondary storage — первичное / вторичное за­поминающее устройство

main storage — основная память; оперативное запоми­нающее устройство

internal storage — внутреннее ЗУ

sequence — последовательность; порядок сле­дования

intermediate results — промежуточные результаты

ongoing process — продолжающие­ся), постоянный процесс

similarity — сходство; подобие

to retain — сохранять; удерживать

to locate — размещать(ся); располагать(ся)

value — значение, величина; значимость, цен­ность; оценка

binary digit — двоичная цифра; двоичный знак

adjacent — смежный; соседний; примыкаю­щий

strings of characters — последовательность символов '

consecutive — последовательный; смеж­ный; соседний

 

Text 1. Storage Units.

 

Computer system architecture is organized around the pri­mary storage unit because all data and instructions used by the computer system must pass through primary storage. Our dis­cussion of computer system units will begin with the functions of the primary and secondary storage units. This leads to the examination of the central processing unit and from there to the consideration of the input and output units. Therefore, the se­quence in which we'll describe the functional units of a digital computer is: 1) storage units, primary and secondary; 2) cen­tral processing unit; 3) input and output units.

As you know, there are primary and secondary storage units. Both contain data and the instructions for processing the data. Data as well as instructions must flow into and out of primary storage.

Primary storage is also called main storage or internal stor­age. The specific functions of internal storage are to hold (store): 1) all data to be processed; 2) intermediate results of process­ing; 3) final results of processing; 4) all the instructions required for ongoing process. Another name for primary storage is mem­ory, because of its similarity to a function of the human brain. However, computer storage differs from human memory in im­portant respects. Computer memory must be able to retain very large numbers of symbol combinations, without forgetting or changing any details. It must be able to locate all its contents quickly upon demand. The combinations of characters, that is, the letters, numbers, and special symbols by which we usually communicate, are coded. The codes used by computer design­ers are based upon a number system that has only two possible values, 0 and 1. A number system with only two digits, 0 and 1, is called a binary number system. Each binary digit is called a bit, from Binary digit. As the information capacity of a single bit is limited to 2 alternatives, codes used by computer design­ers are based upon combinations of bits. These combinations are called binary codes. The most common binary codes are 8-bit codes because an 8-bit code provides for 2/8, or 256 unique combinations of 1 's and 0's, and this is more than adequate to represent all of the characters by which we communicate.

Data in the form of coded characters are stored in adjacent storage locations in main memory in two principal ways : 1) as "strings" of characters — in bytes; and 2) within fixed-size "box­es" — in words. A fixed number of consecutive bits that repre­sent a character is called a byte. The most common byte size is 8-bit byte. Words are usually 1 or more bytes in length.

Secondary storage. Primary storage is expensive because each bit is represented by a high-speed device, such as a semicon­ductor. A million bytes (that is, 8 million bits) is a large amount of primary storage. Often it is necessary to store many millions, sometimes billions, of bytes of data. Therefore slower, less ex­pensive storage units are available for computer systems. These units are called secondary storage. Data are stored in them in the same binary codes as in main storage and are made avail­able to main storage as needed.

 

Exercise 1. Find in the text the English equivalents.

Функциональный блок; цифровой компьютер; устрой­ство ввода; устройство управления; арифметико-логичес­кое устройство; центральный процессор; структура компь­ютерной системы; первичное запоминающее устройство; вторичное ЗУ; рассмотрение; поэтому последовательность; оперативное ЗУ; внутренняя память; промежуточные ре­зультаты; подобие функции человеческого мозга; разме­щать содержимое по требованию; система счисления; дво­ичная система счисления; возможные величины; объем информации; двоичный код; смежные ячейки памяти; последовательность символов; быстродействующее уст­ройство; полупроводник; доступный.

Exercise 2. Answer the questions on text 1.

1. What are the functional units of a digital computer?

2. What units make up the central processing unit?

3. How is computer system organized?

4. What are the two main types of storage units?

5. What do they contain?

6. What is the function of a primary storage?

7. Why is primary storage often called memory?

8. In what respect does computer memory differ from human memory?

9. What are codes based on?

10. What is sec­ondary storage and what is it used for?

Exercise 3.Translate the word combinations into Russian.

Storage: available storage; buffer storage; computer storage; data storage; magnetic disk storage; magnetic tape storage; in­put storage; intermediate storage; internal storage; laser storage; main storage; primary storage; secondary storage; sequential-access storage; variable storage; virtual storage.

Value: absolute value; acceptable value; additional value; bi­nary value; byte value; character value; constant value; correct value; data value; digit value; discrete values; invalid value; neg­ative value; numerical value; output value; valid value.

Digit, binary digit; binary-coded digit; check digit; informa­tion digit; input digit; nonsignificant digit; significant digit; dig­it-by-digit.

Sequence: out of sequence; alphabetic sequence; arithmetic se­quence; binary sequence; character sequence; code sequence; in­struction sequence;data sequence; digital sequence; historical se­quence; increasing sequence; program sequence; string sequence.

Exercise 4. Find the synonyms in the text.

Memory; element; information; command; examination; character; quantity; number; place; computer architect; likeness.

To apply; to form; to move; to hold; to demand; to connect; to supply; to place; to name; to start; to examine.

Continuous; significant; consecutive; usual; enough; main; initial; general.









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