Раздел 3. MODERN TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Лекции.ИНФО


Раздел 3. MODERN TYPES OF COMPUTERS



Раздел 3. MODERN TYPES OF COMPUTERS

 

Задания на лексику

 

а) Прочитать и перевести слова и фразы, выполнить задания 1-4.

 

Задания на чтение

b) Прочитать и перевести текст «Classification of computers» и выполнить задания 1-5.

Грамматические правила

c) Изучить грамматические правила.

Грамматические упражнения

d) Выполнить задания 1-12.

5. Вопросы для подготовки устного сообщения

e) Подготовить устное сообщение по теме Modern types of computers (15-20 предложений).

 

f) Выполнить контрольную работу № 3.

 

Задания на лексику

 

Переведите и выучите слова.

 

Основной вокабуляр

 


1. multitasking

2. general-purpose

3. independent

4. high-resolution

5. enhanced

6. complex

7. complicated

8. simultaneously

9. separately

10. mainframe

11. manufacturer

12. application

13. amount

14. capability

15. power supply

16. memory capacity

17. disk drive

18. battery pack

19. handwriting recognition

20. network environment

21. (to) enable

22. (to) plug in

23. (to) recharge

24. (to) rely on

25. (to) process

26. (to) support

27. (to) solve

28. (to) handle

29. (to) carry

30. (to) be capable of


 

Дополнительный вокабуляр

 


1. according to

2. in terms of

3. in addition

4. however

5. etc

6. although

7. because of

8. therefore

9. graphics screen

10. desktop publishing

11. complex calculation

12. scalar processor

13. vector processor

14. custom design

15. weather forecast

16. climate research

17. molecular modeling

18. physical simulation

19. full-fledged software

20. cutdown software


 

 

Заполните пропуски недостающими буквами.

 


1. e_ _anced

2. simultan_ _ _sly

3. m_ _ nfr _ me

4. am_ _ nt

5. man_fa _ _ urer

6. a_ _ _ ica_ion

7. network env _ _ _ ment

8. c _p_b_l_t_

9. general-p_ _ p_ se

10. _ nd_ p_nd_nt


 

Образуйте сложные слова и фразы, используя слова в двух столбцах.

 

1. multi 2. general- 3. high- 4. power 5. memory 6. disk 7. battery 8. handwriting 9. network 10. hand resolution supply recognition purpose tasking environment drive held capacity pack

 

 

Решите кроссворд.

 

ПО ГОРИЗОНТАЛИ

2. A computer also known as a notebook.

5. A computer where all the processing is done centrally, and the user terminals are called "dumb terminals" since they only input and output (and do not process).

7. At the same time.

11. To fill smth again with electrical power.

12. A pocket computer originally designed as an organizer.

13. A device that contains and supplies electricity.

14. The term that refers to an image with a high level of detail.

ПО ВЕРТИКАЛИ

1. A high-end, expensive computer that is made for complex procedures and is intended for one user at a time.

3. A mechanical, electrical, or electronic computer that performs arithmetical operations by using some variable physical quantity to represent numbers. (Am.)

4. The use of two or more CPUs within a single computer system.

6. Computers that exhibit features of analogue computers and digital computers.

8. A pointing device used as an alternative to a mouse.

9. A device on a network that manages network resources.

10. Can be easily carried.

 

1               2 3           4
                               
      5                        
                          6    
7         8           9        
                               
              10                
                               
11                              
                               
      12                        
              13                
                               
  14                            
                               
                               

 

Задания на чтение

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст. Сколько классов компьютеров упоминается в тексте?

 

Classification of computers

 

There are a lot of terms related to computers. All types of computers have a processor, memory, keyboard, mouse and screen to display output. But there is a significant difference between how people or organizations use computers.

Computers can be classified in different ways: according to technology (analogue, digital or hybrid computers), according to purpose (general-purpose or special-purpose computers) and according to size and power (microcomputers, minicomputers).

A microcomputer, also known as a personal computer or simply PC, is a computer that uses a microprocessor (integrated circuit) for its Central Processing Unit. In addition, a microcomputer should be small enough to fit on a desk, as microprocessor-based computers larger than that are generally called minicomputers.

Microcomputers are divided into the following categories:

· Desktop PCs

· Laptop computers

· Workstations

· Handheld computers

A desktop computer is a very common model which fits on a desk. A desktop is not designed to be portable; it has no independent power supply and is too big and heavy to be carried easily.

A laptop computer is also known as a notebook computer. It is small enough to fit easily in a briefcase. In terms of computing power, modern notebook computers are nearly equivalent to personal computers. They have the same CPUs, memory capacity, and disk drives. Notebook computers come with battery packs that enable you to run them without plugging them in. However, the batteries need to be recharged every few hours.

A workstation is simply a desktop computer that has a high-resolution graphics screen, more powerful processor, additional memory and enhanced capabilities for performing special group of tasks. They are used for engineering applications, desktop publishing, software development, etc.

A handheld computer is a portable computer that is small enough to be held in one’s hand. Although extremely convenient to carry, handheld computers have not replaced notebook computers because of their small keyboards and screens. Some manufacturers are trying to solve the small keyboard problem by replacing the keyboard with an electronic pen. However, these pen-based devices rely on handwriting recognition technologies, which are still being developed. Handheld computers are also called PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant), palmtops and pocket computers.

A minicomputer is a multiprocessing computer, which is less powerful than a mainframe. Minicomputers are commonly used as servers in networked environments where hundreds of personal computers can be connected to the network with a minicomputer acting as a server.

Mainframes are very large computers that are built to run complex applications and are capable of processing large amounts of data and supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. Mainframes are therefore described as multi-user, multitasking machines. They have large hard drives, lots of memory (RAM) and multiple CPUs running in parallel.

Supercomputers are the most powerful and fastest, and the most expensive of all modern computer systems.

They are used to process large amount of data and to solve complicated scientific problems. They have a large number of processors connected in parallel and can perform more than one trillion calculations per second. In a single supercomputer thousands of users can be connected at the same time and the supercomputer handles the work of each user separately.

These computers are used in large organizations, research laboratories, aerospace centres, large industrial units, etc.

 

2. Найдите в тексте синонимы для следующих слов:


1. aim/target/goal (n.) - …

2. use (n.) - …–

3. create (v.) – …

4. execute (v.) – …

5. operate (v.) – …

6. advanced/improved (adj.) – …

7. extra (adj.) – …

8. usually (adv.) – …

9. at the same time –

10. due to (prep.) – …


 

3. Найдите в тексте антонимы для следующих слов:

 


1. unite/integrate (v.) – …

2. easy (adj.) – …

3. cheap (adj.) – …

4. slow (adj.) – …

5. multiple (adj.) – …

6. fixed (adj.) – …

7. light (adj.) – …

8. out-of-date (adj.) – …

9. moderately (adj.) - …

10. unusual (adj.) - …


Какие типы компьютеров используются?

 

1. large company processing payroll data

2. travelling salesperson giving marketing presentations

3. large scientific organization processing work on nuclear research

4. businessperson keeping track of appointments while travelling

5. graphic designer

6. secretary doing general office work

 

Грамматические правила

 

 

Примечание

1. Если глагол оканчивается на "немую" e, то при прибавлении окончания -ing гласная e опускается.

Look! He is shaking (to shake) hands with Mr. Stalone.

2. Если глагол оканчивается на -ie, то конечное –ie заменяется на y.

I am lying (to lie) on the beach now.

3. Если глагол оканчивается на одиночную согласную с предшествующим ударным кратким гласным звуком, то конечнаясогласнаяудваивается (для сохранения графической закрытости слога).

sit– sitting

stop – stopping

begin – beginning

Конечная x не удваивается, т.к. она передает два звука [ks или gz], и слог все равно останется закрытым:

mix – mixing

relax – relaxing

4. Если глагол оканчивается на -r, последний слог ударный и не имеет дифтонга, то конечнаяr удваивается (буква r произносится, т.к оказывается перед читаем. гласной).

stir – stirring

refer – referring

5. Если глагол оканчивается на -l с предшествующим кратким гласным, то конечнаяl удваивается независимо от того, падает ударение на последний слог, или нет.

travel – travelling

cancel – cancelling

 

STATE VERBS

Глаголы, не употребляющиеся в форме Continuous:

1. Глаголы мыслительной деятельности: to know, to mind, to understand, to believe, to forget, to remember, to mean, to doubt, to recognize:

Do you understand what I'm saying? - Вы понимаете, о чем я говорю?

I think he is a kind man. - Я думаю, он добрый человек.

2. Глаголы, выражающие эмоциональные состояния: to like, to dislike, to look, to prefer, to want, to care, to hate, to love, to need, to appreciate, to seem:

I like playing football. - Я люблю играть в футбол.

I hate getting up early in the morning. - Терпеть не могу вставать рано утром.

3. Глаголы пяти чувств: зрения, обоняния, вкуса, слуха, ощущения (to see, fo smell, to taste, to hear, to touch). Обычно они используются с модальным глаголом саn: саn see, can smell, can hear, can taste, can feel:

Can you see Peter? - Ты видишь Петра?

This food tastes good. - Эта еда вкусная.

4. Глаголы обладания: to possess, to own, to belong, to have:

I have two sisters. - У меня две сестры.

This book belongs to me. - Это моя книга.

5. Некоторые другие глаголы: to cost, to need, to contain, to depend, to consist, to seem:

A newspaper costs about 20p. - Газета стоит около 20 пенсов.

I need a bath. - Мне нужно принять ванну.

 

Некоторые из вышеперечисленных глаголов могут использоваться в форме Соntinuous, но значение их при этом меняется:

· to think в значении "иметь мнение" в Continuous не используется:

What do you think of classical music? - Что ты думаешь о классической музыке? I think it's boring. - Я думаю, что это скучно.

Однако to think в значении "иметь что-то в мыслях, думать" используется в Continuous, т.к. это умственная деятельность, а не состояние:

You aren't listening to me? What are you thinking about? - Ты меня не слышишь? О чем ты думаешь? I'm thinking about a letter I received this morning. - Я думаю о письме, которое получил сегодня утром.

· to have в значении "обладать" не имеет формы Continuous.

При обозначении действия в форме Continuous используется to have + существительное:

John's having a bath. - Джон принимает ванну.

We're having cheese for lunch. - У нас на обед сыр.

· to look at и listen to могут использоваться в Continuous:

She's looking at my holiday photographs. - Она смотрит на мои фотографии, сделанные в отпуске.

Don't turn the music off. I'm listening to it. - He выключай музыку. Я слушаю.

· to see употребляется в форме Continuous в значении "посещать", "осматривать":

We are seeing a doctor tomorrow. – Завтра мы идем к доктору.

· to hear употребляется в Continuous в значениях "слушать", "посещать (лекции)" и др.:

I'm hearing your voice. - Я слушаю твой голос.

 

Грамматические упражнения

 

Раздел 4. my university

 

Задания на лексику

 

а) Прочитать и перевести слова и фразы, выполнить задания 1-3.

 

Задания на чтение

b) Прочитать и перевести текст «Siberian Federal University» и выполнить задания 1-5.

Грамматические правила

c) Изучить грамматические правила.

Грамматические упражнения

d) Выполнить задания 1-10.

5. Вопросы для подготовки устного сообщения

e) Подготовить устное сообщение по теме My university (15-20 предложений).

 

f) Выполнить контрольную работу № 4.

 

Задания на лексику

Переведите и выучите слова.

 

Основной вокабуляр

 


1. the Institute of Space and Information Technology

2. Siberian Federal University (SibFU)

3. opportunity

4. higher education

5. faculty

6. educational institution

7. in compliance with

8. (to) be considered

9. (to) be founded on…

10. (to) be formed of…

11. undergraduate

12. training course

13. full-time department

14. part-time department

15. correspondence department

16. postgraduate department

17. (to) gain a Bachelor's / Master's degree

18. (to) implement

19. teaching staff

20. joint use centre

21. graduate

22. Doctor of Science

23. specialist in the field of…

24. computational facilities

25. resource centre

26. hall of residence / dormitory

27. university campus

28. Chair

29. self-education

30. to conduct research


 

Дополнительный вокабуляр

 


1. Institute of Fundamental Biology and Biotechnology

2. Institute of Architecture and Design

3. Institute of Engineering and Construction

4. Institute of Military Training

5. Institute of Engineering Physics and Radio Electronics

6. Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals and Materials Science

7. Polytechnic Institute

8. Institute of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering

9. Institute of Education, Psychology and Sociology

10. Institute of Philology and Language Communication

11. Institute of Mining, Geology and Geotechnology

12. Institute of Economics, Management and Environmental Studies

13. Institute of Business Management and Economics

14. Institute for the Humanities

15. Law Institute

16. Institute of Core Undergraduate Programmes

17. Institute of Mathematics

18. Institute of Physical Education, Sport and Tourism


 

 

Решите кроссворд.

 

По горизонтали

1. Someone who has formally asked for a university place.

5. A first university degree.

7. A large building at a college or university where students live.

8. A student at college or university, who is working for their first degree.

9. Rooms, equipment, or services that are provided for a particular purpose.

10. The subjects that are taught by a university, college etc, or the things that are studied in a particular subject.

11. An amount of money that is given to someone by an educational organization.

12. The former students of a school, college, etc.

14. Someone who holds the highest level of degree given by a university.

15. Someone who is studying at a university to get a Master's degree.

 

По вертикали

2. Involving ideas, information, or people from different subjects or areas of study.

3. Relating to education, especially at college or university level.

4. A teacher in a British university or college.

6. A serious study of a subject, in order to discover new facts or test new ideas.

13. The land and buildings of a university or college, including the buildings where students live.

14. A course of study at a university or college, or the qualification that is given to you when you have successfully completed the course.

             
             
                     
       
                           
       
                       
       
                   
 
 
                   
 
         
           
                     
     
   
   
   

 

 

Задания на чтение

 

1. Прочитайте текст и найдите английские эквиваленты для:

 

1. Болонский процесс

2. внедрять, реализовывать

3. степень бакалавра

4. степень магистра

5. высокопроизводительный компьютерный центр

6. проводить исследования

7. программа по обмену студентами

8. учебный корпус

9. общежитие

10. достигать цели

Siberian Federal University

There are a lot of institutions of higher education in our city but the largest and the most famous one is Siberian Federal University. It was founded on the 28th of November, 2006 and united four universities: Krasnoyarsk State University, Krasnoyarsk State Technical University, Krasnoyarsk State Architectural Academy, and State University of Non-Ferrous Metals and Gold. Today the University consists of 19 institutes, 41,000 students and more than 3,000 faculty members, mostly Doctors and Candidates of Science.

Siberian Federal University offers higher education by 122 educational programmes in 50 professional fields. The education is based on international standards. Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programmes have been implemented in compliance with the Bologna process. The University offers 116 Doctoral programmes.

SibFU equipment joint use centre is an infrastructure element of the innovative system of the University that allows solving large-scale interdisciplinary problems in the areas of high technology and nanotechnology. Equipment joint use centre introduces about 100 units of unique devices and facilities for scientific research which allow conducting the most difficult world-level research.

The University high-performance computing centre provides specialists from various research areas with up-to-date computational and engineering facilities. The University possesses a supercomputer, one of the “Top-50” most high-performance computers in Russia.

Students from Russia and other countries study at the University. SibFU maintains “double degree” programmes with European, Asian and American universities. According to various educational and cultural exchange programmes, hundreds of international students visit SibFU and hundreds of SibFU students study abroad.

The University campus is still being built – it will occupy an area of 650 hectares, with 22 new buildings on its territory. The campus will include academic buildings, a library with storages for 3 million volumes, an international-level sports complex, a congress hall with auditoriums for conferences and exhibitions, several sports centres, halls of residence for students and accommodation for faculty members, hotels for visiting professors, and a cinema complex.

The University helps its students and staff to discover and develop their talents. Special attention is paid to the development of physical education and student sports. Much attention is devoted to the student sports achievements as an effective way of promoting SibFU in Russia and abroad.

Also SibFU students publish the University newspaper and work on SibFU TV channel which provides with news reports not only the University broadcasting network but also Krasnoyarsk Region TV channels.

The goal of Siberian Federal University is to become the centre of innovation and technology development, a world-class human resources training centre. The positive changes that have taken place in the past years allow to assume that the University can achieve its goal.

 

2. Найдите в тексте синонимы для следующих слов:

 


1. according to (adv.)

2. aim (n.)

3. supply (v.)

4. dormitory (n.)

5. merge (v.)

6. dedicate (v.)

7. collective (adj.)

8. advertise (v.)

9. introduce (v.)

10. carry out (v.)


 

3. Найдите в тексте антонимы для следующих слов:

 


1. local (adj.)

2. unshared (adj.)

3. waste (v.)

4. traditional (adj.)

5. failure (n.)

6. uniform (adj.)

7. decrease (n.)

8. dishonour (v.)

9. disagreement (n.)

10. search (v.)


 

Грамматические правила

 

Can/Could/Be able to

can– возможность что-нибудь сделать (могу, умею)

I can play the piano. (умею)

He can answer the question. (может)

I cannot (can’t) swim. (не умею)

He cannot (can’t) understand. (не может)

Can you sing? (умеете?)

Can you help me? (можете?)

I could not ski when I was little. (не умел)

She could not jump so high. (не могла)

to be able to – эквивалент глагола can

He is able to do it. (может, в состоянии)

He was able to do it yesterday. (мог)

He will be able to do it tomorrow. (сможет)

He has been able to swim since childhood. (умеет с детства)

 

Must/ Have to

must– долженствование

You must respect your parents. (должны)

You must not go there. (нельзя)

Must I learn it by heart? (должен?)

must – предположение (должно быть)

It must be cold outside. (должно быть)

to have to – эквивалент глагола must

I have to go there. (надо)

I had to go there. (пришлось)

I will have to go there. (придется)

I don’t have to go there. (не надо)

I didn’t have to go there. (не пришлось)

I won’t have to go there. (не придется)

Do you have to go there? (надо?)

Did you have to go there? (пришлось?)

Will you have to go there? (придется?)

Need

need – необходимость (нужно)

need not (needn’t)– отсутствие необходимости (можно не …)

Need ...? – надо …?

You need not (needn’t) do it. – можете не делать

Need I do it? – надо?

Сравните:

Ты не можешь делать этого. – You cannot do it.

Ты можешь не делать этого. – You need not do it.

Обратите внимание:

You need not have done it – могли и не делать (а сделали)

Сравните:

I needn’t have done it. – можно было не делать (а я сделал)

I didn’t have to do it. – можно было не делать (я и не сделал)

Should

should – следовало бы (синоним - ought to)

You should work harder. – Вам следовало бы больше работать. (должны, нужно)

Сравните:

You should do it. – Вам следовало бы сделать это (сейчас).

You should have done it. – Вам следовало бы сделать это (раньше).

You should not (shouldn’t) do it. – Вам не следовало бы делать этого (сейчас).

You should not have done it. – Вам не следовало бы делать этого (раньше).

Обратите внимание:

You should have done it. – следовало сделать (а вы не сделали)

You should not have done it. – не следовало делать (а вы сделали)

 

Сравните:

You should have done it. – следовало сделать (а вы не сделали)

You must have done it. – должно быть, сделали

Сравните:

I should have done it. – следовало сделать (а я не сделал)

I had to do it. – пришлось сделать (сделал)

 

You should have done it. – следовало сделать (а вы не сделали)

You must have done it. – должно быть, сделали

Сравните:

You needn’t have done it. – могли и не делать (это было не обязательно)

You shouldn’t have done it. – не следовало делать (плохо, что вы это сделали)

Сравните:

I should have done it. – следовало сделать (а я не сделал)

I had to do it. – пришлось сделать (сделал)

Сравните:

I needn’t have done it. – можно было не делать (а я сделал)









Читайте также:

Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-10; Просмотров: 194;


lektsia.info 2017 год. Все права принадлежат их авторам! Главная