Exercise 1. Answer the questions.
Exercise 2. True or false? Give your arguments.
1. Arithmetic operations are operations with numbers – subtraction and division.
2. Early computers gave false impression about their capabilities.
3. Logical operations are computer’s ability to compare two values.
4. The major difference between the computer and tools lies in the flexibility of the program.
5. Embedded computers are found only in typewriters and ovens.
6. Microwave oven’s program is flexible and could be changed because of the embedded computer.
7. Numeric data consist of numbers, decimal points and the (+) and (-) signs.
8. Computer can accept human speech as an audio-visual input data.
Exercise 3. Give definitions, use the dictionary.
2. Arithmetic operations.
3. Logical operations.
4. Numeric data.
5. Textual data.
6. Physical data.
7. Audio-visual data.
Exercise 4. Fill in the banks.
1. … are computations with numbers such as addition, subtraction, and other mathematical procedures.
2. The computers ability to compare two values to determine, if one is larger than, smaller than, or equal to the other is called a …
3. New tools ranging from typewriters to microwave ovens have embedded computers, or …
4. As … can accept data to use several options in its program, but the program itself cannot be changed.
5. … can be used for calculations as well as sorted and compared to each other.
6. … can contain any combinations of letters, numbers and specific characters.
7. Various forms of data that we can hear and see makes up … which is captured from the environment.
Text 3. Types of Software
A computer to complete a job requires more than just the actual equipment or hardware we can see and touch. It requires Software – programs for directing the operation of a computer or electronic data. Software is the final computer system component. These computer programs instruct the hardware how to conduct processing. The computer is merely a general – purpose machine which requires specific software to perform a given task. Computers can input, calculate, compare and output data as information. Software determines the order in which these operations are performed.
Programs usually fall in one of two categories: system software and application software.
System software controls standard internal computer activities. An operating system, for example, is a collection of system programs that aid in operation of a computer regardless of the application software being used. When a computer is first turned on, one of the system programs is booted or loaded into the computer memory. This software contains information about memory capacity, the model of the processor, the disc drives to be used, and more. Once the system software is loaded, the application software can start to work.
System programs are designed for the specific pieces of hardware. These programs are called drivers and coordinate peripheral hardware and computer activities. User needs to install a specific driver in order to activate his peripheral device. For example, if you intend to buy a printer, or a scanner, you need to worry in advance about the driver program, which commonly goes along with your device. By installing a driver you teach your mainboard to understand the newly attached part.
Application software satisfies your specific needs. The developers of software rely mostly on marketing research strategies trying to do their best to attract more users (buyers) to their software. As the productivity of the hardware increased greatly in recent years, the programmers nowadays tend to include all kinds of gimmicks in one program to make software interface look more attractive to their user. This class of programs is the most numerous and perspective from the marketing point of view.
Data communication within and between computers systems is handled by system software. Communications software transfers data from one computer system to another. These programs usually provide users with data security and error checking along with physically transferring data between the two computers’ memory. During the past five years the developing electronic network communication stimulated more and more companies to produce various communication software, such as Web-Browsers for Internet.
Exercise 1. Find in Text 4 the English equivalents: управлять; проводить; завершать; оборудование; внутренний; требовать; управление; конкретный, определенный; многоцелевой; помощь; отношение; несмотря на; вместимость памяти; устанавливать, встраивать; переводить, переносить; обеспечивать чем-либо; обеспечивать безопасность; развивать, проявлять; разработчик; проверять; присоединять; запускать; трюк, приманка.
Exercise 2. General understanding questions.
1. What is a software?
2. In what two basic groups could software be divided?
3. What is software for?
4. Is an operating system an application or system software?
5. What is a driver?
6. What is an application software?
7. What is the tendency in application software market in recent years?
8. What is the application of the communication software?
Exercise 3. What is software?
a) Program b) Mouse
c) CPU d) Word processor
e) Modem f) Web – browser
g) Operating system h) Scanner
i) Developer k) Equipment
Exercise 4. True or false? Give your arguments.
1) Computer programs only instruct the hardware how to handle data storage.
2) System software controls internal computer activities.
3) System software is very dependable on the type of application software being used.
4) The information about memory capacity, the model of the processor and disc drives is unavailable for system software.
5) The driver is a special device usually used by car drivers for Floppy-discs driving.
6) It is very reasonable to ask for a driver when you buy a new piece of hardware.
7) Software developers tend to make their products very small and with poor interface to save computer resources.
8) Communication software is of great need now because of the new advances in communication technologies.
9) Application software is merely a general-purpose instrument.
10) Web-browsers is the class of software for electronic communication through the network.
Exercise 5. Translate into English, using the text.
1) Программное обеспечение определяет порядок выполнения операций.
2) Прикладные программы выполняют поставленную вами конкретную задачу.
3) Этот класс программ самый многочисленный и перспективный с точки зрения маркетинга.
4) Системные программы предназначены для конкретных устройств компьютерной системы.
5) Устанавливая драйвер, вы учите систему понимать вновь присоединенное устройство.
6) Когда компьютер впервые включается, одна из системных программ должна быть загружена в его память.
7) Развитие систем электронной коммуникации за последние пять лет стимулировала много к производству соответствующих программных продуктов возрастающим числом компаний-разработчиков.
Text 4. Operating Systems
When computers were first introduced in 1940’s, and 50’s, every program written had to provide instructions that told the computer how to use devices such as the printer, how to store information on a disk, as well as how to perform several other tasks not necessarily related to the program. The additional program instructions for working with hardware devices were very complex and time-consuming. Programmers soon realized it would be smarter to develop one program that could control the computer’s hardware, which other programs could use when they needed it. With that, the first operating system was born.
Today, operating systems control and manage the use of hardware devices such as the printer or the mouse. They also provide disk management by letting you store information in files. The operating system also lets you run programs such as the basic word processor. Lastly, the operating system provides several of its own commands that help you to use the computer.
DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS is an abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a company named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for “Microsoft DOS”. When IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed DOS from Microsoft for use on the PC and called it PC – DOS. From the users perspective, PC – DOS and MS – DOS are the same, each providing the same capabilities and commands. The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past decade, DOS underwent several changes. Each time the DOS developers release a new version, they increase the version number.
Windows NT (new technology) is an operating system developed by Microsoft. NT is an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows 3.0, 3.1 programs. NT requires a 386 or greater and 8 MB of RAM. For the best NT performance, you have to use 486 with about 16 MB or higher. Unlike the Windows, which runs on top of DOS, Windows NT is operating system itself. However, NT is DOS compatible. The advantage of using NT over Windows is that NT makes better use of the PC’s memory management capabilities.
OS / 2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, ODS /2 is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse. Also like NT, OS / 2 performs best when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM – based PCs are shipped with OS / 2 preinstalled.
UNIXis a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system. Traditionally, UNIX was run on a larger mini computers to which users accessed the systems using terminals and not PC’s. UNIX allowed each user to simultaneously run the programs they desired. Unlike NT and OS / 2, UNIX is not DOS compatible. Most users would not purchase UNIX for their own use.
Windows 95 and 98 are the most popular user-oriented operating systems with a friendly interface and multitasking capabilities. The usage of Windows 95 and its enhanced version Windows 98 is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly. Windows 95 and 98 are DOS compatible, so all programs written for DOS may work under the new operating system. Windows 95 requires 486 with 16 Mb of RAM or Pentium 75 – 90 with 40 Mb of free hard disk space.
Exercise 1. Find in text 5 the English for:сложный; потреблять; осознать; умный; расширять, увеличивать; вершина; на основе DOS; совместимый; доступ; многочисленные пользователи; одновременно; желать; поставлять.
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