Given below is the list of most commonly used sentence connectors in English with examples:
|So||I’ve finished my tea; so has he|
|Yet||Murder has no tongue. Yet it will speak|
|However||At first he refused to go. Later, however, he decided to go|
|Too||He is an idler. He is a gambler, too.|
|Equally||I admitted my error. Equally, the other driver made a mistake.|
|Further||The superintendent was suspended for impudence. Further, there was a charge of corruption against him.|
|Moreover||I wonder why you want to marry Maria. She is vain; she is obstinate. Moreover, she is not so rich as you think her to be|
|Therefore||A is equal to B. B is equal to C. Therefore, A is equal to C|
|As well||There are three houses. I have purchased two already. I’ll buy the third one as well.|
|Neither||The kittens have not been fed; neither has been the puppy.|
|Nor||She can’t do it, nor can I, nor can you, nor can anybody|
|In any case||He may apologize or not. I any case, I’m not going to re-employ him.|
|On the contrary||You say he is my friend. On the contrary, he gave evidence against me in the court.|
|On the other hands||On the other hands, he claims to be my friend; on the other hands he is always running me down.|
Correlative conjunctions: neither/nor, either/or, both/and, . . .
Correlative conjunctions are pairs such as neither . . . nor, not . . . only, and but . . . also. These conjunctions connect two balanced clauses, phrases, or words.
The two elements that correlative conjunctions connect are usually similar in length and grammatical structure.
Here are a few example sentences containing correlative conjunctions:
§ either . . . or
We can go to either Greece or Spain for our holiday.
It’s my final offer – you can either take it or leave it.
§ both . . . and
Both rugby and football are popular in France.
Both English and Welsh are spoken in Wales.
§ not only . . . but also
Not only is he a professional footballer, but he’s also a successful businessman.
§ not . . . but
There are not two but three Baltic states: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
In sport, what counts is not the winning but the taking part.
§ neither . . . nor
Neither Norway nor Switzerland is in the European Union.
Marriage is neither heaven nor hell, it is simply purgatory. (Abraham Lincoln)
§ whether . . . or
Whether you love them or hate them, you have to admit that the Rolling Stones are very popular.
I’m totally confused – I don’t know whether I’m coming or going.
§ no sooner . . . than
No sooner had I finished watering the garden than it started raining.
Watch out!The verb which follows two subjects joined by a correlative conjunction must agree with the second subject, NOT the first:
Either my brother or my mum look looks after our cat when we’re away on holiday.
Either my brother or my parents looks look after our cat when we’re away on holiday.
Neither the manager nor his assistant are is here today.
Neither the manager nor his assistants is are here today.
In English conditional sentences, the condition clause (protasis) is a dependent clause, most commonly introduced by the conjunction if. Other conjunctions or equivalent expressions may also be used, such as unless (meaning “if...not”), provided (that), providing (that) and as long as. Certain condition clauses can also be formulated using inversion without any conjunction; see Inversion in condition clauses below.
The apodosis, expressing the consequence of the stated condition, is generally the main clause of the sentence. Depending on the sentence type, it may be a statement, question, or order. It may appear before or after the condition clause:
e.g. If I see him, I will tell him. (declarative sentence, condition first)
I will tell him if I see him. (declarative sentence, condition second)
If you saw him, would you tell him? (interrogative sentence, condition first)
Would you tell him if you saw him? (interrogative sentence, condition second)
If you see it, photograph it. (imperative sentence, condition first)
Photograph it if you see it. (imperative sentence, condition second)
As with other dependent clauses in English, it is common for a comma to be used to separate the clauses if the dependent clause comes first (as is done in the above examples).
It is possible for the consequence clause to appear alone in a sentence, without a condition clause, if the condition has been previously stated or is understood from the context. It may also be shortened by verb phrase ellipsis; a minimal conditional sentence could therefore be something like “Would you?” or “I would.”
“Zero conditional” refers to conditional sentences that express a factual implication, rather than describing a hypothetical situation or potential future circumstance. The term is used particularly when both clauses are in the present tense; however such sentences can be formulated with a variety of tenses/moods, as appropriate to the situation:
e.g. If you don’t eat for a long time, you become hungry.
If the alarm goes off, there's a fire somewhere in the building.
If you are going to sit an exam tomorrow, go to bed early tonight!
If aspirins will cure it, I'll take a couple tonight.
When you make a mistake, someone lets you know.
The first of these sentences is a basic zero conditional with both clauses in the present tense. The fourth is an example of the use of will in a condition clause. The use of verb tenses, moods and aspects in the parts of such sentences follows general principles.
Occasionally, mainly in a formal and somewhat archaic style, a subjunctive is used in the condition clause (as in “If the prisoner be held for more than five days, ...).
“First conditional” or “conditional I” refers to a pattern used in predictive conditional sentences, i.e. those that concern consequences of a possible future event. In the basic first conditional pattern, the condition is expressed using the present tense (having future meaning in this context), and the consequence using the future construction with will (or shall):
e.g. If you make a mistake, someone will let you know.
If he asks me, I will/shall consider his proposal carefully.
The use of present tense in dependent clauses with future time reference is not confined to condition clauses; it also occurs in various temporal and relative clauses (as soon as he arrives; take the first train that comes; etc.).
The present tense used in the condition clause may take the form of the simple presentas in the above examples, or the present progressive, present perfect or present perfect progressive.
e.g. If he is sleeping when we arrive, we shan't wake him. (present progressive)
Will you wake him if he hasn't stirred by 10 o'clock? (present perfect)
If you have been working for more than ten hours when he returns, he will take your place. (present perfect progressive)
The condition can also be expressed using the modal verb should. This form can be used to make an inverted condition clausewithout a conjunction:
e.g. If you should make a mistake, ... (equivalent to “If you make a mistake”)
Should you make a mistake, ... (inverted form again equivalent to the above).
Otherwise, the condition clause in a first conditional pattern is not normally formed with a modal verb, other than can. However there are certain situations (often involving polite expressions) where will, would and could may be used in such clauses; For the occasional use of the subjunctive in the condition clause, see under zero conditional above. In colloquial English, an imperative may be used with the meaning of a condition clause, as in “go eastwards a mile and you’ll see it” (meaning “if you go eastwards a mile, you will see it”).
Although the consequence in first conditional sentences is usually expressed using the will (or shall) future (usually the simple future, though future progressive, future perfect and future perfect progressive are used as appropriate), other variations are also possible – it may take the form of an imperative, it may use another modal verb that can have future meaning, or it may be expressed as a deduction about present or past time (consequent on a possible future event):
e.g. If it rains this afternoon, come round to my place! (imperative)
If it rains this afternoon, we can/could/should/may/might find somewhere to shelter. (other modals)
If it rains this afternoon, then yesterday's weather forecast was wrong. (deduction about the past)
If it rains this afternoon, your garden party is doomed. (deduction placed in the present)
A particular case involves a condition clause that expresses a goal (this is often done using the be + to construction, the going-tofuture or the verb want), and the main clause expresses something that is necessary for the achievement of that goal, usually using a modal verb of necessity or obligation. In this case it is effectively the main clause, rather than the dependent condition clause, that expresses a “condition”.
e.g. If we want to succeed, we have to try harder.
If you are to get your pocket money, you must start behaving yourself.
As noted in the following section, it may be possible to express a statement about a hypothetical future situation using either the first or second conditional pattern, with little specific difference in meaning.
“Second conditional” or “conditional II” refers to a pattern used to describe hypothetical, typically counterfactual situations with a present or future time frame (for past time frames the third conditional is used). In the normal form of the second conditional, the condition clause is in the past tense (although it does not have past meaning), and the consequence is expressed using the conditional construction with the auxiliary would:
e.g. If I liked parties, I would attend more of them.
If it rained tomorrow, people would dance in the street.
The past tense (simple past or past progressive) of the condition clause is historically the past subjunctive. In modern English this is identical to the past indicative, except in the first and third persons singular of the verb be, where the indicative is was and the subjunctive were; in this case either form may be used. (Was is more colloquial, and were more formal, although the phrase if I were you is common in colloquial language.
e.g. If I (he, she, it) was/were rich, there would be plenty of money available for this project.
If I (he, she, it) was/were speaking, you would not be allowed to interrupt like that.
When were is the verb of the condition clause, it can be used to make an inverted condition clause without a conjunction. If the condition clause uses the past tense of another verb, it may be replaced by the auxiliary construction was/were to + infinitive (particularly if it has hypothetical future reference); if this is done and were is used, then inversion can be applied here too:
e.g. If I was rich, ... / If I were rich, ... / Were I rich, ...
If I flew, ... / If I was/were to fly, ... / Were I to fly, ...
Another possible pattern is if it wasn't/weren't for... (inverted form: were it not for ...), which means something like "in the absence of ...". For clauses with if only, For the possible use of would or could in the condition clause as well, see below.
The conditional construction of the main clause is usually the simple conditional; sometimes the conditional progressive (e.g. would be waiting) is used. Occasionally, with a first person subject, the auxiliary would is replaced by should (similarly to the way will is replaced by shall). Also, would may be replaced by another appropriate modal: could, should, might.
When referring to hypothetical future circumstance, there may be little difference in meaning between the first and second conditional (factual vs. counterfactual, realis vs. irrealis). The following two sentences have similar meaning, although the second (with the second conditional) implies less likelihood that the condition will be fulfilled:
e.g. If you leave now, you will still catch your train.
If you left now, you would still catch your train.
Notice that in indirect speech reported in the past tense, the first conditional naturally changes to the second:
e.g. She’ll kill me if she finds out.
He said I would kill him if I found out.
“Third conditional” or “conditional III” is a pattern used to refer to hypothetical situations in a past time frame, generally counterfactual (or at least presented as counterfactual, or likely to be counterfactual). Here the condition clause is in the past perfect, and the consequence is expressed using the conditional perfect.
e.g. If you had called me, I would have come.
Would he have succeeded if I had helped him?
It is possible for the usual auxiliary construction to be replaced with were to have + past participle. That used, the above examples can be written as such:
e.g. If you were to have called me, I would have come.
Would he have succeeded if I were to have helped him?
The condition clause can undergo inversion, with omission of the conjunction:
e.g. Had you called me, I would have come. / Were you to have called me, I would have come.
Would he have succeeded had I helped him? / Would he have succeeded were I to have helped him?
Another possible pattern (similar to that mentioned under the second conditional) is if it hadn't been for... (inverted form: had it not been for ...), which means something like ‘in the absence of ...”, with past reference.
“Mixed conditional” usually refers to a mixture of the second and third conditionals (the counterfactual patterns). Here either the condition or the consequence, but not both, has a past time reference.
When the condition refers to the past, but the consequence to the present, the condition clause is in the past perfect (as with the third conditional), while the main clause is in the conditional mood as in the second conditional (i.e. simple conditionalor conditional progressive, but not conditional perfect).
e.g. If you had done your job properly, we wouldn't be in this mess now.
If I hadn't married Kelly, I wouldn't be living in Scotland now.
When the consequence refers to the past, but the condition is not expressed as being limited to the past, the condition clause is expressed as in the second conditional (past, but not past perfect), while the main clause is in the conditional perfectas in the third conditional:
e.g. If we were soldiers, we wouldn't have done it like that.
Other variations on the respective clause patterns are possible, as used accordingly in the second and third conditionals.
Phrasal verbs + object
Verb phrases can be simple, as in a main verb plus its helping verb, or complex, including adverbs, direct objects and indirect objects. Because a verb phrase comprises the verb itself plus other elements of the predicate, a direct object is by definition part of the verb phrase.
A direct object is the noun or pronoun that carries the action of the verb. In the sentence, “Zeke saw a wombat,” the direct object is “wombat”; it is what the subject, Zeke, saw. The verb phrase in this sentence is “saw a wombat,” the verb itself, the direct object (noun) and the article, “a.”
Some verbs in English are inherently two-part constructions; these idioms include a second word, called a participle, which completes the meaning of the verb. These phrasal verbs can take direct objects, and the whole construction then becomes a verb phrase in the general sense. An example is “pick up,” which has a different meaning as a verb than simply “pick.” For example, “Zeke picked up the wombat.” “Wombat” is still the direct object, what he picked up. “Picked up” is the two-word phrasal verb, and the whole predicate is the verb phrase “picked up the wombat.”
Learning phrasal verbs is one of the most challenging tasks for English learners. Teachers can use this introducing phrasal verbs lesson plan to help students become more familiar with phrasal verbs and start building phrasal verb vocabulary. This phrasal verbs reference list will also get you started with short definitions of approximately 100 of the most common phrasal verbs. Finally, there are a wide variety of phrasal verb resources on the site to help you learn new phrasal verbs and test your understanding with quizzes.
Phrasal verbs quickly become confusing for a few reasons:
· One main verb many prepositions - Just think of the verb 'to get', here's a short list: get into, get through, get to, get into, get by, etc.
· One phrasal verb, different meanings - Consider the phrasal verb 'pick up': pick up = learn, pick up = physically fetch, pick up = purchase, etc.
· One phrasal verb, literal, figurative and idiomatic meanings - How about the verb 'put up': put up / literal = physically place on a shelf, put up / figurative = provide a place to sleep, put up / idiomatic = deal with a situation
· Separable or inseparable? - Look after - inseparable / look over - separable. It's very difficult to learn which phrasal verbs separate and which don’t!
Let's start with the introductory list of problem areas for phrasal verbs from above. For each phrasal verb you learn, ask yourself these four questions:
1. Which other phrasal verbs do I know that begin with this main verb?
2. What is the literal meaning of this phrasal verb, the figurative meaning, and the idiomatic meaning? - Not all phrasal verbs have multiple meanings, but many do!
1. Is this phrasal verb separable or inseparable?
2. Can I write (or speak) a few example sentences with this phrasal verb?
Here's a look at 5 common phrasal verbs. It's a good list to start with, and it will help you learn to consider these various factors when learning phrasal verbs. I'll provide answers on each of the questions (in a shortened form). When you are done, use the example form to study on your own. You can either copy the form onto a piece of paper, or copy and paste into a new document. Perhaps you can even save the document with multiple blank entries so you can continue to use this method to learn phrasal verbs. Make your own phrasal verb dictionary!
Note: Not all phrasal verbs with other prepositions are listed for each main verb. That would be impossible! Try to think of as many phrasal verbs with other prepositions as you can for each of your own entries.
Phrasal Verb: Get Into
· Other phrasal verbs with this verb?
get to, get by, get through, get over, get at, get away with
· Literal, figurative, idiomatic meaning?
Literal: to open a box, drawer or other container
Figurative: to discuss something
Idiomatic: to enjoy
· Separable or Inseparable?
· Example sentences:
I used a key to get into the house.
Let's get into the reasons why we're going to win this case.
He really got into the concert!