You will read & translate a text about self-presentation and a family. Before you read, discuss in pairs the following.
1. Do you remember your early years? Why? 2. Do you know the truly significant things about the people you love and live with? 3. Do you often share your fears and problems with your parents? 4. What are your best memories of your family? 5. Do you have family customs (e.g. an annual picnic, the first day of spring, a traditional relaxed evening meal once a week) etc.? 6. Is it a challenge for family members to make time for one another? What is your opinion?
Introducing myself (my family)
To begin with I’d like tointroduce myself. My full name is Alexander Andreevich Smirnov, but friends normally call me by my short name Sasha. I was born on September 27, 1993. I am 17. Originally, I’m from Murmansk, but now I live in Arkhangelsk. I am a first-year-student of the Northern Arctic Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov.
I was born under the astrological sign of Libra. I think I’m quite easy-going and balanced. I find it easy to make friends. It seems to me I can mix quite well with people I’ve never met before. I like to be friendly to the people around me. I can play the piano quite well. I love playing computer games and reading. I am sure I am ambitious. I like to win competitions, to win prizes, to score the most points, to be the best, etc. I have a career plan.
I come from quite a big family. We are 6 in the family: my father, mother, two brothers, a sister and me. My parents live in Murmansk. When I lived there I had very close contact with my family, but now of course it’s much more difficult. I feel the miss of my parents and my granny. Every week we could go at the weekend to stay with my grandmother on my mother’s side. My grandfather is not sociable but he is a very good musician. I don’t remember my grandparents on my father’s side; they died when I was 5 years old. I write occasionally to my parents, also we phone each other and send e-mails.
My father is quite old, he’s 55. He is tall. He has short, dark, curly hair and a small beard. I think he is a cheerful and good-humored person. He usually wears jeans and sweaters. My father doesn’t like formal clothes. He prefers to dress casually. He is generous, punctual and helpful. He is always clean-shaven. He is very interested in other people and he plays the guitar very well. He is a marine engineer of a shipping company. He has a sister Lidia, so I have only one aunt. I love my auntie, her husband (my uncle) and their children (my cousins).
My mother is 50. She has short, straight hair. She has dimples and rosy cheeks. She has long eyelashes which she darkens with mascara. Her favorite colours are green and light blue. My mother likes to be well dressed. She wears shoes with extremely high heels. She is open-minded and nice. Her main interest is music. My parents have a great many friends. My mother’s brother Alex and his wife have three children, who are all married now.
My brothers Sergey, who is six years older than me, is a computer programmer. He’s married to Irena, who doesn’t work – she is a housewife and she brings up the children. They have two children: Igor and Maria aged four and three. They are my nephew and niece. My other brother, Ivan, who is five years older than me, is an architect. Unfortunately, he and his wife Marina got divorced two years ago. My sister Anastasia is one year younger than me. She is a blond girl with short straight hair, dark eyes and slander arms and legs. She is rather tall and slim. So you can see we have quite a lot of presents to buy at Christmas!
To my mind the stereotypical family of husband and wife is changing now. Unfortunately there are a lot of one-parent families. A lot of people get divorced now and live on their own, and bring up their children on their own.
Psychologists say some families cope well with problems, while others fall apart. I am absolutely sure that the key to a family’s strength and happiness is the degree of emotional closeness between members.
|significant things||существенные моменты|
|a goal||цель, задача|
|to be balanced||быть уравновешенным|
|to mix||идти на контакт с людьми|
|to be friendly to smb.||быть дружески расположенным|
|to score the most points||выигрывать|
|to feel the miss of smb||чувствовать, как кого- то не хватает|
|my grandmother on my mother’s side||бабушка с маминой стороны|
|to die (died)||умирать|
|to write occasionally||время от времени переписываться|
|to be clean-shaven||быть чисто выбритым|
|a marine engineer||судовой инженер|
|to have dimples||лицо с ямочками|
|to darken the eyelashes||красить ресницы|
|shoes with extremely high heels||туфли на высоченных каблуках|
|to get divorced||развестись|
|the stereotypical family||типичная семья|
|one-parent family||неполная семья|
|to fall apart||не получаться (трещать по швам)|
|family’s strength||сила, сплоченность семьи|
|she brings up the children||она растит детей|
Match the highlighted words or word combinations in the text with their definitions.
1. willing to talk and engage in activities with other people;
2. the sister of one's father or mother or the wife of one's uncle;
3. wearing smart or fashionable clothes;
4. when children leave their parents' home they …;
5. each of the twelve equal sections into which the zodiac is divided;
6. parents of one's father or mother;
7. as a rule, it usually happens;
8. children of one's uncle or aunt;
9. a person having a husband or wife;
10. I have a strong desire to be successful.
Fill in the boxes with names from the text about family relationship.
Charles, William and Diana are the children of Jack and Anne. Charles and William are their two sons, and Diana is their daughter. Charles and William are the two brothers of Diana. Jack and Anne are happy since they've been married. Jack is Anne’s husband. Anne is Jack’s wife. They are the parents of Charles, William and Diana. Jack is their father and Anne is their mother. Jack and Anne have five grandchildren. Charles is married; his wife’s name is Mary. Mary and Charles are Jessica’s aunt and uncle. Michael is a nephew of Charles and the son of Diana and Samuel at the same time. Jane is Mary’s niece and Joseph’s sister. Elizabeth has four cousins, the children of Diana and Samuel. Diana is the sister-in law of Mary who is Jack’s and Anne’s daughter-in law. Jack is Samuel’s father-in law and Anne is his mother-in law.
I live in Arkhangelsk. The district I live in is right in the centre of the town. So it’s very quick to get to from my University. It takes me 20 minutes to go on foot. I think it’s very convenient for studies. I live in a block of flats, in a flat on the seventh floor of a building. I like living high up because a lot of light comes in. And I never take a lift to the seventh floor because I develop my muscles. That is why I sometimes have muscles ache.
Actually, our flat isn’t very big. It’s about 45 square meters. It is centrally-heated. There is a living room which I share with my younger brother Boris. There is a sofa-bed, where I sleep and a bed where my brother sleeps. We also have two desks in the room. I have a computer on my desk. I usually download something from the Internet: films, music etc. We’ve got a TV, which is nice, with about 20 different channels. My brother sometimes spends half of a day in front of a television or spends a lot of time playing computer games. Then we have six blocks of shelves which are full of books on oil, geology and chemistry. I’m a student of Oil and Gas Institute and I have to read much to be a high qualified specialist.
The other room is my parents’ bedroom. There is a brown wall-to-wall carpet, so the room looks quite nice. They also have yellow curtains that match the carper. There is a bed next to the window and a wardrobe. They really like their room.
We like our kitchen. There is a table in there where we usually eat breakfast and dinner. It’s got a lot of shelves with plants, a cupboard, and a stove, a washbasin with taps for hot and cold water. The kitchen is quite high-tech. It has a microwave oven, a sandwich maker, and many domestic electric appliances to help with the cooking. Our family arranges a relaxed evening meal once a month when we share our problems. I am sure it is important to talk about our everyday life and plans with the parents.
Then we’ve got a bathroom. There is a nice setup in the room. It has black and white tiles on the floor, so it looks like a chessboard. It is really funny. It has a bath, a toilet and also a washing machine. There is a big boiler to heat up the water.
There is always a very nice family atmosphere in our flat. My mother knows how to give the place a homely atmosphere.
My grandparents live in the country, so I’ve lived there. I know the difference. I think it is really nice to go to the country for a break. But on the other hand, I do get bored if I am there for a long time.
I often think about my ideal flat or house. I would like to have a house, ideally with a garden. I’d also like to have a nice view of the river or of the sea. I like rooms with different shapes which have may be one wall which is a little bit rounded. I’d like to have the attic in my house.
Prepare a short presentation on one of these topics:
· My ideal place to live
· My room
· The house of the future
You will read & translate a text about daily routine. Before you read, discuss in pairs the following.
1. Are you satisfied with your life? 2. Do you plan out your daily routine? 3. Do you usually make a list of all the things you want or need to accomplish in your life? 4. Can you take control of your life? 5. Are you always sure of doing the things you really need to do? 6. How do writers, artists, and other interesting people organize their days?
It seems to me my life is always very full of activities and so I never have much time for myself. My daily routine is a bit different now that I am a first-year student. I usually start the day by getting up at half past six or earlier even though I would really prefer to sleep much later. I always do some gentle stretching in bed. After I get up I perform my morning routine of taking a quick shower or washing my face, brushing my teeth, and then deciding what to wear. After I get dressed I brush my hair and put in my contact lenses. I sometimes don’t have time for breakfast in the morning because I have to catch a bus at seven thirty for my commute to University. That is why I sometimes get a cake or something on the way. I am absolutely sure it is not useful for my health.
Classes at University start at eight twenty except on Tuesdays and Fridays when they start at ten minutes past ten. Classes are un hour and a half long with five minute breaks, except for one "long" break between the third and the fourth classes, which is un hour long. After classes I do some shopping on my way back.
When I get home I take the dog out and relax for some time. I listen to music and maybe get a little snack. I very rarely cook but I actually enjoy cooking. I find it really relaxing because after thinking all day, it’s nice to just chop up vegetables and think of something really mindless, and not have to concentrate too hard.
Then I start my homework or help with some housework. I want my home to be in order, but I don’t want to be a slave to my housekeeping routines. So, how do I balance it all? I keep it simple.
After dinner, I usually watch television. As a rule I watch the news on the TV. I am very busy but I like to find time in the evening for things which are really important to me. The first of these is surfing the Internet or downloading films and music from the Internet. But some things have to be done at a certain time and so I always give these priorities in my timetable. I mean finding time to study for my examinations.
I like to go to a fitness center or to the gym with my friends, and we try to do this every week, and we like to swim in the swimming pool. But for some reason, we can’t often make enough time for it.
I have a date with my boyfriend twice a week.
So this is my daily routine during the week. I usually manage to go to bed around eleven thirty pm.
At the weekend it is a different story, I like to sleep late and do whatever I wish with my free time. I am still expected to help my parents out around the house but I still have most of the time for myself and my interests. I can go for a trip with my friends, I can visit my relatives or I can devote more time to my hobbies. I think everyone will agree that weekends are much better than weekdays.
|daily routine||обычный распорядок дня|
|accomplish smth||совершать, выполнять что-либо|
|a first-year student||первокурсник|
|to do some gentle stretching||потягиваться|
|to perform morning routine||совершать обычные утренние дела|
|to take a quick shower||ополоснуться|
|toput in contact lenses||надеть контактные линзы|
|to get something on the way||перекусить на ходу|
|a "long" break||большая перемена|
|to do some shopping on the way back||зайти в магазин на обратном пути|
|to take the dog out||погулять с собакой|
|to get a little snack||перекусить|
|to find it really relaxing||считать, что-то расслабляющим|
|to think of something really mindless||не думать ни о чем серьезном|
|to be a slave to housekeeping routines||быть рабом порядка в доме|
|to give priority to smth||отдавать приоритет чему-либо|
|to go out on a date||пойти на свидание|
|to go for a trip||съездить в путешествие|
|to devote more time to smth||посвящать больше времени чему-либо|
How often do you do these things? Use the frequency adverbs or adverbial phrases from the box:
|always||usually||not often/often||sometimes||never||once/twice/ three times a week/ a month/ a fortnight||hardly ever||four or five times a year or less||less than once a year|
|come on time /come in time||spend most of time in the kitchen|
|listen to music||start the day by getting up at 11 o’clock|
|wake up at 6 am & do yoga||make a cup of tea in the morning|
|eat junk food||work in the garden|
|shampoo and condition the hair||clean the windows|
|use body scrub to wash the body||take tranquillizers or sleeping pills|
|buy magazines or journals||find it difficult to relax|
|read books||dry the hair with a hair drier|
|send or receive emails/ check emails||do the dishes|
|have on-line conversations||clean the house|
|go to the cinema, theatre||do the cooking|
|go out to the Disco\Nightclub\to a bar||take a bath|
|go out on Friday or Saturday nights||do the ironing|
|come to work late||do the washing|
|act lazily||do crosswords|
|put on makeup||make the bed in the morning|
According to the dictionary, hobby is an activity done regularly in one's leisure time for pleasure or an activity that you enjoy doing in your spare time. I have different types of hobby. To begin with I’d like to say a few words about my childhood. When I was a child I enjoyed playing superheroes. So, I have a very big collection of them.
When I was at school I was interested in cooking. My key-friend was a student from India. That is how I learnt how to cook a lot of Indian dishes, from her. I enjoyed cooking myself and tried to cook a lot of food at home. My collection of recipes is small but mouthwatering. For example, I know how to cook Spanish paella. I am sure if you follow precisely the instructions step by step it will be delicious.
One of my hobbies is sport. My sport hobby is tennis and I like skiing and swimming. I can say that some of my friends are simply hooked on jogging and brisk walking. Isometimes play different sport games for health and pleasure. I’m very active. I like to play badminton and to ride a bicycle. My new hobby is roller-skating. Unfortunately, I have never tried wind-surfing, water skiing, and scuba diving.
My other hobby is photography. My mum says I take very good pictures. But I don’t think so. It’s not easy to be artistic.
When I first went to Tunisia (a country in North Africa) it was in 2005, I started to learn French. After French I tried to learn Spanish and Italian. I found it quite complicated and I often confused words and verbs. When I’ve been on holiday in Italy it was quite easy to understand what was going on, but I couldn’t actually form a sentence.
I'm fond of reading. Unfortunately, it’s getting less and less popular nowadays because of the Internet. My friends seldom borrow books from libraries. Some of them are sure this is a complete waste of time. I like reading fantasy books and historical novels. There is a very good library in Arkhangelsk which I use regularly.
I like music. I have a huge collection of albums. I adore the Beatles, the Rolling Stones and Elvis Priestly. I very much like folk music and jazz-rock music. I hardly ever go to discos. I have been to a few places like M33. I would probably go to more if there was better music.
We organize extra class activities such as parties and other social activities at our University. I try to participate in most of them. My greatest problem at school was making speech in front of the class. And now I can manage it.
It is a well-known fact that healthy people live longer and their career is more successful. I don’t smoke and take drugs, I don’t drink alcohol, I don’t eat too much chips and sweets, I try to eat more vegetables and fruits, I sleep well without taking sleeping pills and tranquillizers.
Answer the following questions:
1. What steps does your regular morning routine include?
2. What is your daily shower routine?
3. Be honest! Do you really wake up at 6 AM & do yoga every morning, or are you more inclined to rush out the door at 8.49 without so much as brushing your hair?
4. Do you think that changing our old habits is impossibility, an exercise in futility, a waste of time?
5. Are you afraid of change? Would you like to make something new into a habit? Are you terrified at the idea of shaking things up?
6. How would you like your routine to look? What steps do you need to take to make this a reality?
7. What kind of steps do you need to take to switch up your routine for good?
8. What small changes do you think you could make which would really improve your daily routine?
9. Do you find it easy to keep your home “clean enough” most of the time?
10. What will be the daily routines for a sportsman?
11. What do teachers do on a daily routine?
12. Are you satisfied to spend your days doing nothing?
13. What is the most important thing you ever did?
14. Which event in your life was the most significant?
15. Who is your favourite painter, writer, tennis player, jazz musician, singer, bandleader, sculptor, architect, film maker, actor or actress, poet, explorer, composer, pianist?
16. Do you do anything for charity?
You will read & translate a text about Russia. Before you read, discuss in pairs the following.
1. What do you think Russia is famous for? How much do you know about Russia? 2. Who is the pride of Russia to your mind? 3. Can Russia be proud of its culture? Give your reasons. 4. Do you know the lowest winter temperature in Russia? Is it easy to say it? 5. Which is colder, Siberia or Antarctica? 6. Do you know anything about the general weather conditions that are typical of Russia?
(Its geographical position, climate, natural and mineral resources & industry)
I live in Russia. It is my native country. The Russian Federation is a transcontinental country. It occupies one seventh of the Earth's surface. It is situated both in Europe and Asia. With an area of 17,075,400 km², Russia is the largest country in the world, covering almost twice the total (land and sea) the territory of either United States or China.
The country is washed by twelve seas (the Baltic Sea in the west, the Caspian and Black seas in the south). Russia’s north is washed by several seas of the Arctic Ocean – White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi seas. The eastern coasts of Russia are washed by the Bering, Okhotsk seas and the Sea of Japan. The Strait of Bering separates the Chukchi Peninsula from Alaska. Russia is also bordered by the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. I know from the history of my country the White-Baltic-Sea Channel, which connects the White Sea with Onega Lake, was constructed mostly by political prisoners.
Russia shares land borders with the following countries (counter-clockwise from northwest to southeast): Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It is also close to the United States (Alaska State), Sweden, and Japan across relatively small stretches of water (the Bering Strait, the Baltic Sea, and the Strait of La Perouse, respectively). The Strait of La Perouse separates Sakhalin from Hokkaido.
There is no other country in the world like Russia, with steppes in the south, plains and forests, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands, deserts and semi-deserts in the east. Its chief regions are the Russian (East-European) Plane, the Ural Mountains, the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau and the Far East. Russia’s Far East is a comparatively narrow strip of land extending from northeast to southwest for practically 4500 km.
The Ural Mountains, the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia, run for over 2.000 kilometers from north to south. The Caucasus, extending between the Black and Caspian seas, is a system of ranges of which the highest is Mt Elbrus (5642 m) which has always attracted Russia’s mountaineers. The northern slopes of the Caucasus border the south of the European part; the Khibiny Mountains are to the northwest.
There is a great number of rivers in Russia. The largest European rivers are the Volga, Northern Dvina, Don and Pechora, while Asia is crossed by the Ob’, Irtysh, Yenisey, Amur and Angara. The Volga River is one of the largest inland water transportation in Europe extending 3700 kilometers from Valdai Hills to the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian rivers - the Ob', the Yenisey, and the Lena flow from the south to the north. The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific Ocean. The Central Siberian Plateau is situated between the Yenisey and Lena rivers.
Among Russia’s lakes one finds The Caspian Sea, the world’s largest, and Baikal Lake, the world’s deepest one, as well as such large lakes as the Ladoga and Onega Lake. The water in Baikal Lake is so clear, that you can see the stones on the bottom.
Because of the vast territory there are various types of climate in the country. Russia’s climate is markedly continental, with cold winter and mild or warm summer, depending on latitude, but the climate varies greatly in different regions. Russia is spread over all climatic zones except tropical. Most of Russia’s territory is located in the temperate belt. The Arctic Ocean’s islands are located in the Arctic and sub-Arctic belts. At the same time, a small part of the Caucasus’ Black Sea coast is located in the sub-tropical belt. The huge territory of Russia stretches across 10 time zones.
Russia is among the world’s richest countries in mineral and energy resources. Russia is very rich in oil, natural gas, coal, as well as iron ore, copper, zink, lead, nickel, aluminum and tin. The most important deposits of coal and iron are in Siberia, as well as most of heavy industry. But there are also a lot of mines on the European territory of the country. Russia is also one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states.
|to share land borders with||граничить на суше|
|to be washed by||омываться|
|counter-clockwise||против часовой стрелки|
|stretch||протяжение/простирание, пространство, участок, отрезок|
|mountain chain/range||горная цепь|
|desert||пустыня, пустынный район|
|various types of climate||различные типы климата|
|latitude (in the latitude of 40 degree South; at a latitude of ten degrees North)||широта (на 40 градусе южной широты; на 10 градусе северной широты)|
|deposits of coal||месторождение угля|
|heavy industry||тяжелая промышленность|
|eastwards||в восточном направлении|
|margin||берег, кромка, край|
|coniferous forest||хвойный лес|
|flowering herbs||цветущие травы|
|nuclear weapons||ядерное оружие|
1) Match items from columns (1-12) and the second one (A-L) to form phrases which describe geographical facts of Russia:
|1. The principal river of the west Siberian lowlands and one of the largest rivers of the world.||A) The Kara sea|
|2. An Industrial city of Russia to the south of Moscow, traditionally famous for rifles, samovars and pryaniki (gingerbread).||B) Baikal Lake|
|3. A mountainous region in the southern part of West Siberia.||C) The oldest towns|
|4. Russia’s most easterly point||D) Arkhangel’sk|
|5. The third longest river, following the Volga and the Danube.||E) Yaroslavl’|
|6. It is situated between the Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef land islands, and the Archipelago Severnaya Zemlya||F) The Ob’|
|7. For a long time it was Russia’s only access to the sea.||G) Cape Dezhnev|
|8. A group of volcanic islands situated between the Kamchatka Peninsula and the island of Hokkaido.||H) The Altai|
|9. 336 rivers flow into this lake, the world deepest, and only one, the river Angara, flows out of it.||I) Tula|
|10. It is situated between the islands of Sakhalin and Hokkaido and connects the Sea of Okhotsk with the Sea of Japan.||J) The La Pérouse Strait|
|11. The “Gold Ring of Russia” unites||K) The Kuril Islands (the Kurils)|
|12. An ancient Russian city of the River Volga. According to the legend it has been known since 1071.||L) The Dnepr|
A group of foreign students is planning to visit Russia as a part of a cultural and educational exchange program. You have volunteered to help by preparing an information sheet, to be distributed to them on their arrival.
You should include:
· Brief details about Russia;
· Sights and places of cultural interest:
· Any other information that you think would be useful for the visiting group.
You will read & translate a text about Great Britain. Before you read, discuss in pairs the following.
1. Where is Great Britain situated? 2. Do England, Wales and Scotland occupy the territory of Great Britain? 3. What is England famous for? 4. Do you know anything about Wales? What about its relief? 5. What does Albion mean? 6. Does English landscape change continually if you go north - or east – or west? Prove it.
|to denote||oбозначать, указывать, значить|
|substantial||основной, главный, большой,|
|straggling||состоящий из разрозненных частей, разбросанный|
|irregular triangle||неправильнй треугольник|
|Eire||Эйре (официальное название Ирландской республики с 1937 по 1949)|
|Ulster||Ольстер (историческая область на севере Ирландии; большая её часть после раскола страны в 1921 была включена в качестве автономной провинции в состав Соединённого Королевства).|
|Orkney Isles||Оркнейские острова (бывшее графство Шотландии)|
|Hebrides||Гебриды, Гебридские острова (архипелаг в Атлантическом океане, к западу от Шотландии; территория Великобритании)|
|Isle of Wight||(остров) Уайт (в проливе Ла-Манш, принадлежит Великобритании)|
|to be used wrongly||ошибочно использоваться|
|to be separated from||быть отделенным от чего-либо|
|a great number||большое количество|
|geographical position of a country||географическое положение страны|
|mountainous part||гористая часть|
|a county||графство (административно-территориальная единица в Великобритании)|
|a rumor||cлух, молва|
1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland comprises _______ parts. A. 3 B. 4 C. 5
2. The name for the island that comprises England, Scotland, and Wales is _______.
A. The United KingdomB. Great Britain C. The British Isles
3. The Coat of Arms of the UK shows _______.
A. a shield, a crown, a lion, a unicorn and the motto “Dieu et mon driot”;
B. a bald eagle with a ribbon in its mouth bearing the motto “E pluribus Unum”, 13 arrows and an olive branch in its talons;
C. a shield, a kangaroo, an emu, a branch of acacia
4. The British national flag (The Union Jack) hasn’t _______.
A. St Catherines’ Cross B. St George’s Cross
C. St Andrew’s Cross D. St Patrick’s Cross
5. The British national anthem is _______.
A. “God Save the Queen”
B. “In God we trust”
C. “God forbid”
6. The British unit of money is _______.
A. Irish pound
B. pound sterling
C. Egyptian pound
7. A city in eastern England where one of the oldest Universities is located _______.
A. Bedford B. Harvard C. Cambridge
8. One of the main industrial cities in west central England is _______.
9. An industrial city and metropolitan district in England, founded in Roman times, developed in the 18th and 19th centuries as a centre of the English cotton industry is _______.
A. Manchester B. the Wheat Belt C. the Rust Belt
You will read & translate a text about London. Before you read, discuss in pairs the following.
1. Have you ever been to London? 2. How do foreigners characterize the British? 3. What happened in London in1666? 4. How do the British call the London Underground? 5. What traditional song is performed at a British birthday party? Do you know it? 6. What is Conrad (Nicholson) Hilton famous for? Do you know anything about the Hilton Hotels Corporation?
The capital of the United Kingdom, in southeastern England on the Thames River about forty miles from its mouth is London. London is a leading global city, with its strengths in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transport all contributing to its prominence. It is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest cities in the world. It is known as one of the largest sea ports in the world. London has the largest city GDP in Europe, and is home to the headquarters of more than 100 of Europe's 500 largest companies.
The Thames River has had a major influence on the development of the city. London began on the Thames' north bank and for a long time the main focus of the city remained on the north side of the Thames. For many centuries London Bridge was the only bridge in or close to the city.
London’s history goes back to its founding by the Romans, who called it Londinium. It was settled as a river port and trading centre shortly after the Roman invasion of AD 43 and has been a flourishing centre since the Middle Ages. It is divided administratively into the City of London, which is the country's financial centre, and 32 boroughs. The London boroughs are administered by London Borough Councils which are elected every four years. The boroughs are the principal local authorities in London and are responsible for running most local services in their areas, such as schools, social services, waste collection, and roads.
As far as I know in London one can see architecture of different centuries and styles. It is closely connected with the history of London. The Romans, the Saxons (West Germanic tribe), the Danes, the Normans settled in Britain. London survived the Great Plague - a serious outbreak of bubonic plague in England in 1665-1666, in which about one fifth of the population of London died. It was the last major outbreak in Britain.
The Great Fire of London is to be mentioned. During the Fire all wooden houses were completely ruined and a New London with bigger houses and wider streets was built.
Traditionally London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. I’d like to start with the City.
The City of London is a small area within Greater London. It is the historic core of London around which the modern conurbation grew and has held city status since time immemorial. The City’s boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, and it is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though remains a notable part of Central London. It is often referred to as the City (often written on maps as "City") or the Square Mile, as it is just over one square mile (1.12 sq mi/2.90 km²) in area. These terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's financial services industry, which has historically been based here. The City has a resident population of around 10,000, but around 330,000 people work there, mainly in the financial services sector. There are many banks, offices, and the Stock Exchange.
Greater London covers an area of 1,579 square kilometers (610 sq mi), an area which had a population of 7,172,036. The West End is the richest part of the city with its beautiful avenues, parks and gardens, grand hotels, theatres and fashionable shops. It is a symbol of wealth and luxury. Here one can see the Houses of Parliament, most governmental offices, such as Foreign Office, Home Office, etc. The East End is a vast area running eastward from the city. It is poor and crowded. It has all the main docks and a lot of factories. In the East End one can see numerous dirty houses and slums.
If you want to get some glimpses of London, you’d better start sightseeing with the Tower of London, which comes first among the historic buildings of the city. It was built as the fortress after the Norman invasion of England in 1066. It has been used as the Royal Palace, as an observatory, and a prison. For many visitors the principal attraction is the Crown Jewels, the finest precious stones of the nation.
Another historic building is St. Paul’s Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built by a famous English architect Sir Christopher Wren. St. Paul’s Cathedral, with its famous Whispering Gallery, is considered to be a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture.
Westminster Abbey was founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050. The best part of the Abbey is a wonderful chapel, dating back to the 16th century. It is famous for its magnificent architecture. There are many monuments there. Many English kings and queens are buried there. One of the greatest treasures of the Abbey is oaken Coronation Chair made in 1300. On the south side of Westminster Abbey is Poet’s Corner, where the greatest English writers are buried. Here also are memorials to Shakespeare, Burns, Byron, Scott and so on. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, which is spread magnificently on the north bank of the Thames. It is a remarkable example of Gothic architecture.
|the Thames River||Темза (река в Великобритании)|
|strength||достоинство, сильная сторона|
|prominence||выдающееся положение; известность|
|headquarters||штаб-квартира, головной офис|
|a major influence||значительное влияние|
|AD, Anno Domini||н.э., нашей эры|
|the Middle Ages||Средние века|
|The City||деловой квартал в центре Лондона: финансовые и коммерческие круги Лондона.|
|a borough||один из 32-х административных районов Лондона|
|waste collection||вывоз отходов, уборка мусора|
|Saxons||Cаксы (древнегерманское племя; приняло участие в завоевании Британии|
|the Great Plague||Великая чума (эпидемическая вспышка бубонной чумы в Лондоне в 1665)|
|Greater London||Большой Лондон - административно-территориальная единица; состоит из Лондона и его пригородов, ранее бывших частью прилегающих графств: Мидлсекс, Эссекс, Кент, Саррей, Хартфордшир)|
|time immemorial||незапамятное время|
|a metonym||метоним (слово, заменяющее другое слово на основе связи их значений).|
|resident population||постоянное население|
|the Stock Exchange||Лондонская фондовая биржа (основана в 1773)|
|Houses of Parliament||здание парламента|
|Foreign Office||Министерство иностранных дел|
|Home Office||Министерство внутренних дел|
|to get some glimpses of London||бросить беглый взгляд на Лондон|
|eastwards||на восток, в восточном направлении|
|the Crown jewels||драгоценности из королевской казны|
|Whispering Gallery||«Галерея шёпота» (у основания внутреннего купола собора Павла; знаменита своим акустическим эффектом)|
|Westminster Abbey||Вестминстерское аббатство (место коронации английских монархов) б) британский парламент (здание парламента располагается в районе Вестминстер)|
|The Coronation Chair||Коронационное кресло (в Вестминстерском аббатстве) используется во время коронации.|
|a memorial||памятник, монумент, мемориал|
|Westminster Palace||Вестминстерский дворец (королевский); с середины 14 в нём проходят заседания парламента|
|Poet’s Corner||часть Вестминстерского аббатства, где похоронены выдающиеся поэты...|
|World Heritage Sites||объекты Всемирного наследия|
Give a one-minute talk on the situations:
· The World Heritage Sites in London I would like to visit: the Tower of London; Kew Gardens; Westminster Abbey and St. Margaret's Church; Greenwich; Buckingham Palace; the London Eye; Piccadilly Circus; St Paul's Cathedral; Tower Bridge, and Trafalgar Square.
· You are a journalist. You are carrying out a survey to find out what your partners know about cultural institutions including: the British Museum, National Gallery, and British Library. Ask as many questions as possible.
· You are a young reporter from a local newspaper. You are writing about London. You need some detailed information about: Wimbledon and London’s Chinatown. Ask as many questions as possible.
Answer the following questions:
1. How old is London?
2. Is London the most visited city in the world? Why?
3. Which London airport is the world's busiest airport by number of international passengers?
4. What is the ancient core of London?
5. What is Big Ben? How often does Big Ben strike?
6. How old is the Tower of London?
7. What do you know about « the Chamber of Horrors»?
8. What is the official residence of the British Queen?
9. Which is the poorest part of London, East End or West End?
10. Do you know anything about Guy Fawkes’ Night? What holiday do the British celebrate on the 5th of November?
11. Where are the British kings crowned?
12. Where does the Changing of the Guard take place?
13. What is a double- decker bus?
14. What city does the Greenwich meridian run through? Is Britain the centre of the world for the British?
15. Where is the Poets’ Corner situated?
You will read & translate a text about Arkhangelsk. Before you read, discuss in pairs the following.
1. What is Arkhangelsk famous for? 2. Is Arkhangelsk full of history? Prove it. 3. Where is Arkhangelsk located? 4. How do you understand the term «cod-eaters»? 5. Have you ever been to Solovetski Islands? 6. Do you know the origin of the Arkhangelsk streets’ names?
To begin with I’d like to say a few words about history of Arkhangelsk. In 1584, Ivan IV ordered the founding of New Kholmogory (which would later be renamed after the nearby Archangel Michael Monastery).
In 16 century, establishing of trade between Russia and West European states, as we all know, gave rise to development of Arkhangelsk. Local inhabitants, called Pomors, were the first to explore trade routes to Northern Siberia as far as the trans-Urals city of Mangazeya and beyond. In 1693, Peter I ordered the creation of a state shipyard in Arkhangelsk.
Arkhangelsk Region (oblast) is a federal subject of Russian Federation, part of North-West Federal District. The administrative center and capital city is Arkhangelsk. The region includes large Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya islands. It embraces a vast area of 589,900 sq. km. In terms of territory the Arkhangelsk Region is one of the largest in Russia. Arkhangelsk Region shares land borders with the Komi Republic, Karelian Republic, Kirov Region, Vologda Region, and Tyumen Region. Arkhangelsk oblast has the population of about 1,300,000 (2010).
Administratively, the Arkhangelsk Region comprises 19 districts, 7 towns, 24 urban and 179 rural areas. It also incorporates the Nenets Autonomous Area, and the Solovetski Archipelago. Solovetski Islands located in the White Sea are a World Heritage Site now. The historical centers of Arkhangelsk oblast of Russia are Kargopol, Kholmogory and Solvychegodsk. There are a number of Russian Orthodox monasteries, including the Antoniev Siysky Monastery there. Together with the Vologda and Murmansk Regions, the Komi and Karelian Republics, the Arkhangelsk Region makes up the area known as Northern European Russia which occupies the territory of 1.48 million square km. (8.8% of the whole territory of the Russian Federation). 6 million people live here.
Severodvinsk city located in Arkhangelsk oblast is one of the Russian Navy bases (mostly nuclear submarines). Russian spaceport Plesetsk is situated in Arkhangelsk oblast.
The seas of the Arctic Ocean, rich in biological resources, wash the Region in the North. Four major rivers (Severnaya Dvina, the Pechora, the Onega and the Mezen), all flow into these seas. Broad and deep, Severnaya Dvina creates favorable conditions for navigation and is the main water route. It is the largest river of the European Russian North, though it is not the longest one. The length of Severnaya Dvina is 744 km, while that of the Pechora is 1,809 km.
Seas, rivers, lakes, tundra and taiga are inhabited by various kinds of fish (cod, plaice, herring, salmon, etc.), birds (hazel-hen, wood-grouse, ptarmigan) and animals (seal, deer, elk, polar fox, hare, wolf, bear, etc). Fish, game and sea animals are priceless natural wealth that brought the first settlers to the Northern land centuries ago.
The Arkhangelsk Region is rich not only in natural but in mineral resources too. Commercial deposits of natural gas and oilfields have been discovered in the Nenets tundra, coal-fields, and massive reserves of peat. Arkhangelsk diamonds are better in quality than Australian and equal to South-African ones. There are numerous deposits of building materials, big reserves of gypsum, semiprecious stones, manganese, various abrasives, ceramic raw materials, and minerals.
Over many years Arkhangelsk has accumulated a unique experience of fruitful cooperation with Russian and foreign partners form the Barents Region, European Union, and the USA. Coastal location of the Arkhangelsk region has made it closer to the industrially developed countries. Arkhangelsk has always been international and Russia’s first «window to Europe». Before the Revolution hundreds of foreigners lived there. Consulates-general of six European countries functionated in Arkhangelsk. I think it is to be noted that the capital of the Pomor Land opened Honorary Consulate of Kingdom of Norway in 2010. This is the first Norwegian Honorary Consulate in Russia.
Archangelsk is home to various educational institutions: First of all the Northern Arctic Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (founded in 2011) is to be mentioned. NArFU mission is to be a centre to train high qualified specialists for Arkhangelsk and Murmansk Regions, Nenets Autonomous Area and other regions bordering on RF continental Arctic shelf. The shelf has long been a priority for the Russian oil and gas industry. The Shtokman gas condensate field development project is of strategic importance for Russia. The field will become a resource base for supplies of the Russian gas, both pipe gas and LNG, to the Atlantic markets.
I love Arkhangelsk which is full of history. But I think the air is not so clean. It’s quite polluted and I really do miss the fresh country air.
|to explore trade routes||исследовать торговые пути|
|local inhabitants||местные жители|
|a state shipyard||государственная верфь|
|Franz Josef Land||Земля Франца-Иосифа (группа островов на севере Баренцева моря)|
|to share land borders||граничить на суше|
|the Nenets Autonomous Area||Ненецкий автономный округ (на северо-западе России, адм. центр - Нарьян-Мар)|
|the Solovetski Archipelago||Соловецкий архипелаг; группа островов|
|urban areas||городские поселения (муниципальные образования)|
|rural areas||сельские поселения (муниципальные образования)|
|World Heritage Site||объект Всемирного наследия|
|Orthodox monasteries||православные монастыри|
|Northern European Russia||Северо-запад России|
|biological resources||биологические ресурсы|
|to creates favorable conditions for||создать благоприятные условия для|
|cod, plaice, herring, salmon||треска, kамбала, сельдь лосось; сёмга|
|hazel-hen, wood-grouse, ptarmigan||рябчик, тетерев-глухарь, белая куропатка|
|seal, deer, elk, polar fox, hare||тюлень, олень, лось ,песец, заяц|
|game animals||охотничье-промысловые животные, дичь|
|commercial deposits||месторождения промышленного значения|
|reserves of peat||экономические запасы торфа|
|building materials||строительные материалы|
|semiprecious stones||полудрагоценные камни|
|fruitful cooperation||плодотворное сотрудничество|
|Honorary Consulate of Kingdom of Norway||Почетное консульство Королевства Норвегия|
|an educational institution||образовательное учреждение|
|Northern Arctic Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov||Северный Арктический Федеральный Университет имени М.В. Ломоносова|
|the devil||дьявол, сатана|
|the garments||одеяние, облачение|
Exercise4. Test yourself
1. Arkhangelsk was founded in __________by the order of __________.
A) 1590 … Henry I B) 1584…Ivan the Terrible C) 1612 … Peter I
2. The city got its present name in _______.
A) 1607 B) 1624 C) 1613
3. Arkhangelsk is named after the monastery of ______________ situated there.
A) Saint Louis B) Saint George C) the Archangel Michael
4. Peter the Great visited Arkhangelsk three times__________:
A) in 1693, 1694, 1702 B) in 1692, 1697, 1708 C) in 1690, 1695, 1706
5. The three dates of Peter I’s visits are engraved on ______________.
A) The Victory Monument
B) The pedestal of the monument to Peter I
C) The pedestal of the monument to M. Lomonosov
6. The monument to Peter I is the work of _______.
A) Ivan Martos B) Mark. Antokolski C) Dmitri Startsev
7. The Museum of Fine Arts possesses a rich collection of _______.
A) fish and animals B) minerals C) paintings
8. National women’s garments and headdresses are exhibited in _______.
A) The Museum of Fine Arts
B) The Museum of Northern Seafaring
C) The Museum of Local Lore
9. The Arkhangelsk Region was formed in _______ in place of the Arkhangelsk Gubernia (Province) which originally occupied a vast territory of ______ thousand km2 and included _______ Uyezds (districts).
A) 1937… 850 … 9 B) 1940 … 800 … 12 C) 1938 … 890 … 10
10. Four major rivers (the Northern Dvina, the Pechora, the Onega and the Mezen), all flow into ______.
A) the Atlantic Ocean B) the seas of the Arctic Ocean C) the Indian Ocean
11. The Arkhangelsk Region’s seas, rivers, lakes are inhabited by various kinds of fish: _______ etc.
A) pike, skate, dolphin B) whale, shark, bream C) cod, plaice, herring, salmon
12. The Arkhangelsk Region’s tundra and taiga are inhabited by various kinds of birds and animals________ etc.
A) hazel-hen, ptarmigan, seal, deer, elk, polar fox, hare
B) owl, parrot, hummingbird, elephant, wolf, bear, tiger, leopard
C) snake, ostrich, swan, rabbit, wood-grouse, white grouse, monkey, stork
13. The length of the Severnaya Dvina is ________.
A) 640 km B) 744 km C) 1,809 km
14. The Arkhangelsk Region is situated in ______________ climate belts.
A) arctic, subarctic and moderate
B) subarctic, moderate and continental
C) arctic, moderate and subtropical
15. The relief of the Region is mostly __________.
A) flat and mountainous B) flat C) mountainous
16. The monument to the victims of the British-American-French intervention of 1918-1920 was designed by architect __________.
A) M. Kibirev B) M. Nasekin C) M. Chernov
17. Vercola, a village in Pinezhski District, is becoming a place of attraction for people interested in Russian history and culture due to ________.
A) The monument to M. Lomonosov
B) The 17-th century monastery and the well-known writer Fedor Abramov (1920-1983)
C) Lake Kenozero
18. The first settlers of Solovki (the Solovetski Archipelago) ________.
A) were the Slavs B) was a Scandinavian tribe C) were 2 monks-hermits Savvati and Zossima who were seeking their salvation there
You will read & translate a text about customs and traditions of Great Britain. Before you read, discuss in pairs the following.
1. Why do various nations keep up their customs and traditions? 2. How do foreigners characterize the British? How to avoid traditional misleading stereotypes? 3. How many nations and nationalities live in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland? 4. Does Britain have a National Day? 5. How do the British celebrate traditional and religious holidays? 6. What are the most common superstitions in Britain?